Below is a list of events through history that
led to Scottish Clans
gaining or loosing their power.
858 Kenneth I died, king of the
Picts, and regarded as the first king of
Scots. Kenneth I founded the dynasty that ruled
Scotland for most of the medieval period,
turning this land of warring
tribes, into an organized civilization.
The early Scotland Kings are burried at
founded by St Columba and his Irish
followers in AD 563, on the Isle of Iona, just off
the west coast of Scotland.
1018, King Malcolm II of
Scotland won the Battle of Carham (Northern
England) against the Northern English. This led to
the Kingdom of Scotland’s border being drawn to almost what it is today. The Scots
captured more land in Northern England in the following years, but failed
to hold them.
1263 1st October, King
Alexander III of Scotland defeated the Norwegian King Haakon at the Battle of
Largs. The Vikings had been plundering the Western
Isles and west coast of Scotland for over 400
years. The Battle of Largs led to the Vikings
being pushed out of Scotland, and the
western isles over the next few years.
1286, the death of King Alexander III of
Scotland, and that of his only heir, the four
year old Princess Margaret (Maid of Norway)
four years later, led to the powefull English
King Edward I (Longshanks) sending his forces
into Scotland to gain control
1292, John Balliol was chosen by the Scottish
Nobles to be their King. Balliol then tried unsuccessfully to drive the English out of Scotland.
Edward captured and imprisoned Balliol in the Tower of
London. Balliol's release in 1299 saw him
moved to France, where he lived on his estate
there until he died.
1297 11th September, William Wallace lead
about 15,000 Scottish rebels against an English army,
about 50,000 strong, that were on route to Stirling Castle. Wallace’s victory at Stirling Bridge saw
him rewarded with the title Guardian of
1298, William Wallace’s army was
defeated by a huge English army led by Edward
I at Falkirk. Wallace escaped Falkirk, but was captured in Glasgow 5th August 1305,
and executed in London 23rd August 1305.
1314 June 23rd, the Scottish army of
Robert the Bruce engaged an English army led
by King Edward II (son of Edward 1 who died in
July 1307). This battle was at Bannockburn, close to Stirling Castle.
Bruce’s victory in this three day battle, led to the English flee
towards their remaining strongholds in Scotland, and back across the border. The Scotland / England war continued for a further 14 years, until the treaty of Edinburgh was
signed on the 17th March 1328. Bruce then became king of an independent Scotland. Bruce
died at Cardross, probably from leprosy on the 7th June
1371, Bruce’s son David
II died without leaving an heir, leading to the crowning
of Robert the Bruce’s grandson Robert II
(Stewart) this starting the house of Stuart,
that would soon rule Scotland and England.
1488, the disliked King James III (Stuart)
is killed at the battle of Sauchieburn by the
army of his son James, who became King James
IV of Scotland.
1513 9th September, the Battle of Flodden Moor,
in Northuberland England, took place between the armies of
James IV (Stuart) of Scotland, and King Henry
VIII (Tudor) of England. Henry provoked the
Scottish attack by
capturing Scottish ships travelling between
Scotland and France. Scotland’s losses in
the battle included the king
himself, and many nobles.
1530s, King Henry VIII of England (Tudor)
encourages England to adopt Protestantism. The
German monk Martin Luther, was stating the
Christian Catholic religion, built around the
Pope in Rome, should be changed.
split the Christian religion into Catholic
and Protestant. The Protestant religion
was adopted by Henry so English
churches would then send money to him instead of the
Pope. Also, Protestants could get
divorced, , and clerics could
marry. Many thousands of British died,
or had to emigrate over the following
two century’s, fighting over religion.
1542, King James V (Stuart) of Scotland,
died only one week after the birth of his only child
Mary. The death of James V, saw Henry VIII
of England send troops into Scotland to pressure the
Scots into having Mary mary his son Edward.
Mary was taken to France for her safety in
1548. She later married a French prince
and became Queen of France. Following the death of
her husband, and the death of her
mother soon after in 1560, Mary returned to Scotland to take on the title Mary Queen of Scots.
At this time, Scotland and
England were constantly fighting over the
Catholic and Protestant religions. Catholics from
Scotland, England and France, claimed the
Queen Elizabeth I (Tudor) of England
since 1558, a protestant, should be replaced by Mary, who was a catholic with claims to the English throne, as
she was Margaret Tudor's granddaughter.
There were a number of battles at that time, that only ended after
Mary was captured and imprisoned by Elizabeth’s forces in 1568. Mary was held captive until she was executed by beheading in 1587. The death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603
without leaving an heir, led to Mary Queen of
Scots son James VI of Scotland, declared King
of England and Scotland.
1642, Charles I (Stuart) of England &
Scotland, is so unpopular,
England ends up in a Civil War. Forcing a new
prayer book on the Scots, and having little regard for the English Parliament, led to the
war. The parliamentarians (Roundheads) led by
Oliver Cromwell, finally defeated the
Monarchy (Cavaliers) in 1649, Charles was
sentenced to death and beheaded soon after. This allowed Cromwell to rule
England & Scotland as Lord Protector until
he died in 1658. The death of
Cromwell’s son in 1659, led to the Stuart’s returning to the throne.
1560, the Scottish Parliament passed an Act,
abolishing the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland, this led to most of the Cathedrals and
Abbey's in Scotland being destroyed. Much of their
stonework was then used for the construction of
1707, Queen Anne (Stuart) manages to set up the
Union of the parliaments of Scotland and
England. The parliaments then become
the Parliament of Great Britain. Scotland
merchants were then free to trade with America and the
West Indies, that had been mainly controlled
by England until that time. Sugar, tobacco and
slavery made many Scottish merchants rich, leading to
Scotland's towns and cities growing dramaticaly
from that time, with impressive Georgian and
Victorian buildings being built all over Scotland
from the mid 1700s till the early 1900s. Much of the historic architecture found in Scotland's
towns and cities today, was built during this
1714, the death of Queen Anne
(Stuart) a Protestant, without leaving an heir, lead to
George I (Hanover) becomming king of
Great Britain. This was requested by Queen
Anne to prevent her exiled Catholic brother, James
the old Pretender, from becomming king. George
was the son of the Electress Sophia of Hanover
/Germany, a granddaughter of King James
I of England. As George was a protestant
catholic Stuart’s disputed his right to be king.
1715, the sixth Earl of Mar (John Erskin)
raised an army for James Francis Stuart (the
Old Pretender) and joined up with English forces that also
wanted King George I overthrown. That uprising was defeated by Hanoverian supporters, and became known as the
first Jacobite Rising.
1719, the Battle of Glenshiel led to another
defeat of the Jacobites by the Hanovarians.
1745 September 19th, the Battle of Prestonpans,
led by Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie
Prince Charlie) defeated a Hanovarian army led by Sir John Cope, the first Jacobite victory.
1746 January 17th, the Jacobites defeated English troops at Falkirk.
1746 April 16th, the Battle of Culloden Moor
by Inverness, ended in under one hour with the
defeat of the Jacobites.
Bonnie Prince Charlie survived the battle only to flee to France. This was the
last major battle fought on the British Isles.
1762 The Highland Clearances start, as
Chiefs and land owners begin forcing crofters off their land so they can make way for large sheep farms. Many
crofters relocated to coastal areas, where it was difficult to survive, so moved
into large towns and cities in search of work.
Many crofters were forced to emigrated to America and Canada, where
they were encouraged to move into new
territory, whre they would have to face hostile native
1837-1901, Queen Victoria (Hanover) ruled
Britain with her children marrying throughout
Europe. Her marriage to Prince Albert (son of
Ernest Duke of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha,
Germany) produced 9 children and
40 grandchildren. Victoria
Adelaide, their first child, married the German Emperor Frederick III, with their son becoming Kaiser Wilhelm
II of World War I era. Edward II, their second child, ruled Britain under his fathers title
Saxe-Coburg & Gotha, with his son becoming
George V of Britain of the World War I era. Princess Alice, their
third child, married the German
Louis IV of Hesse, Grand Duke, with their
daughter Princess Alexandria marrying Csar
Nicholas II of Russia of World War I era.
1917, during World War One, King
George V of Britain takes on the name House of
Windsor for the British royalty, in an attempt to distance them
from their German relations. As the war came to
an end, George’s cousin Kaiser Wilhelm II
of Germany, abdicated and move to
Nicholas II of Russia, George’s other cousin, was forced to abdicate
in 1917 during the Bolshevik Revolution. The Czar,
Princess Alexandria and their family, were shot
by the Bolshevik’s on the 16th July 1918. The
House of Windsor survived the war, and have remained popular monarchs in
Britain into the 21st century.
Three rulers of the most powerful countries that
fought each other during World War One,
Britain, Germany and Russia, were related
through Queen Victoria. This must be the largest family feud
in history, that led to the death of around 9