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Jacobite Risings

Jacobite Risings were a series of Conflicts between 1689 and 1746 with 3 major Uprisings.

Jacobite's were people that fought to have the Catholic Stuart's restored to the throne of Great Britain, mainly from Highland Clans.

The Risings were over the British Parliament trying to prevent Catholic Stuart's reigning as Kings of Great Britain.

England had been at war with Catholic France for centuries, so the British Parliament did not want a Catholic King that was friendly with France.

1689 - King James II Stuart was overthrown by his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband to be William, who became Mary II and William II. James was accused of being a Catholic with close ties to France. He was the last Monarch in Britain accused of having Catholic beliefs.

This set off the first Jacobite Rising as supporters of James tried to have him restored to the throne. James fled to France in 1690, ending that Uprising.

1714 - the Death of Queen Anne Stuart led to her Protestant German cousin George I being proclaimed King by the English Parliament. This led to the Second Jacobite Rising as the Jacobite's wanted the Catholic James Francis Stuart to become King. This Uprising ended in 1716 with James fleeing to France.

1740s - the Catholic Charles Edward Stuart, son of James Francis Stuart, was living in France while England was fighting a number of wars throughout the world. This led to the French persuading him to start another Jacobite Rising with their support. France wanted a Catholic King in Great Britain so as to prevent the ongoing wars between England and France.

1745 - Charles Edward Stuart traveled from France to Glenfinnan in Scotland to start the Third Jacobite Rising. This Rising ended in 1746 with the defeat of the Jacobite's at the Battle of Culloden. Charles fled to France after the battle. This was the end of the Jacobites.

The British Government built a series of Military Roads throughout the Highlands of Scotland and a number of Forts to prevent more Risings. They also banned Highland Gatherings and the Wearing of Kilts.

Many Highlanders were forced from their land to make way for large scale Sheep & Crop Farming, leading to some moving to Coastal Villages for Fishing, and some to the Cities. Herring Fishing around Scotland grew dramaticaly from this time as people only needed small inexpensive boats to get started.

A large number of Highlanders were also forced to relocate to America and Canada.

1783 - America gained Independence from Great Britain through the American Revolutionary War, ending Britain sending people to America.

1788 - Britain began Populating Australia, including Criminals sent to Penal Colonies in Australia, with many claiming they had been fitted up for things like Sheep Steeling. A way of clearing out trouble makers and providing cheep labour in Australia. Children were also deported to work, normally Orphans, or from families that could not afford to keep them, some with their parents consent, and some without, just picked up off the street.

Interesting Facts that led to the Jacobite's

1517 - Preaching's by the German Philosopher Martin Luther led to the Christian Religion splitting into Catholic and Protestant. Protestant Churches would then have the Head of their County as as Head of their Churches instead of the Pope in Rome.

1524 - England turned to Protestantism with King Henry VIII becoming head of the English Churches.

1560 - Scotland adopted Protestantism.

1603 - James VI Stuart becomes King of England and Scotland, head of Churches in both countries.

1638 - many Scots signed the National Covenant to prevent the Stuart Kings from being head of their Churches. These Scots only accepted Jesus Christ as head of their Churches. These activists were referred to as Covenanters with their actions setting off a series of wars over Religion such as the Bishops Wars, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, English Civil War, and Jacobite Risings.

1689 to 1746 - Jacobite Risings were mainly supported by Clans in the North of Scotland. Some Clans changed sides over the years, and some had family fighting on both sides.

Clans would have their Estates and Castles taken from them if they were on the side that lost, so often changed sides.

Clan Campbell was one of the most powerful Clans in Scotland. They normally supported the King and Government during the Covenanter and Jacobite Risings.

1692 - Robert Campbell of Glenlyon commanded the troops that massacred about 38 members of the Jacobite MacDonald Clan at Glencoe.

1746 - after the final defeat of the Jacobites, the King took control of the Estates and Castles of many Jacobite Clans. In earlier times, most of these Estates would have been awarded to loyal Clans, but these Estates were sold to the Highest Bidder.

Extensive Information

1689 Jacobite Rising . 1715 Jacobite Rising

1745 Jacobite Rising . Covenanters

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