Below is a list of Wars that led to
the World we see today.
Great 356 BC – 11th June
Alexander the Great, also known as
Alexander III of Macedon, was one of
the most successful Military Commanders
in history, said to be undefeated in
By the time of his death, he had
conquered most of the world known to
the ancient Greeks.
Many Military Commanders throughout
history, and even to the present day,
were influenced by Alexander the
Roman conquest of
Britain AD 43
The Roman Conquest of Britain began
with the expeditions of Julius Caesar
in 55 and 54 BC.
Britain was an island split into
many kingdoms at that time, many of
which welcomed the Romans.
As most of the Scottish tribes
refused to accept the Romans, they
built Hadrian's wall across northern
England to keep the Scottish tribes at
The most famous of the English
tribes to try and remove the Romans
from Britain was the Iceni tribe of
East Anglia, led by Queen
Boudica in AD 60 or 61.
Although Boudica failed in her
attempt to crush the occupiers, ever
increasing attacks on the Romans in
Britain and Europe forced their
departure from Britain in 410.
Viking raids across
Europe 793 - 1066
Viking refers to Norse
(Scandinavian) people, great explorers,
warriors, merchants, and pirates, who
raided and colonized many areas across
Europe from the late 700s to the early
Norsemen used their longships to
travel as far east as Constantinople
and the Volga River in Russia, and as
far west as Iceland, Greenland and
Battle of Clontarf
in Ireland 1014 (April 23)
The Battle of Clontarf took place on
Good Friday on the 23rd April 1014
between the forces of the Irish Kings,
Brian Boru and Mael Morda mac
Mael Morda mac Murchada had an army
boosted by many Viking mercenaries from
Dublin and the Orkney Islands.
Although killed in the battle
himself, Brian Boru and his forces
succeeded in removing Viking influence
The Battle of
Largs (Scotland) on the 2nd October
1263, between king Hakon Hakonsson of
Norway, and Scottish forces of king
Alexander III, led to the Viking
withdrawal from Scotland.
Canute the Great
Conquest of England 1016
Canute was a son of the Danish king
Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark, becomming
one of the most famous people in
history after conquering England in
1016, becoming King of England along
with Denmark, Norway and parts of
Canute died in 1035, at Shaftesbury,
in Dorset. He was buried in Old
Minster, at Winchester.
The weak rule of his descendants led
to the French / Norman invasion of
England beginning in 1066 by the troops
of William, Duke of Normandy (William
William the Conqueror's victory at
the Battle of
Hastings, was the last successful
conquest of England, the beginning of
modern day Britain.
1096 – 1291
The Crusades were a series of
religious military campaigns by much of
Christian Europe, mainly against
Muslims, but also Slavs, Jews,
Russians, Greeks, Mongols, Cathars,
Hussites, Waldensians, Old Prussians
and political enemies of the popes.
The first Crusade started in 1095
after Pope Urban II called upon all
Christians to join a war against the
Turks, promising those who died in the
endeavor would receive immediate
remission of their sins.
The most famous Crusades were
battles between Christians and Muslims
for control of the Holy Lands and
conquests 1205 – 1312
The Mongol Empire expanded
dramatically in the 1200s with a series
of successful invasions throughout
Central and Western Asia, reaching
Eastern Europe by the 1240s.
Genghis Khan was the founder of the
Mongol Empire, declared Khagan
(emperor) of one of the largest empires
The building of the Mongol Empire is
said to have led to the death of
between 30 and 60 million people.
Wars of Scottish
Independence 1296 –
King Alexander III of Scotland died
in 1286, and his eight-year-old heir,
Margaret, died four years later.
As Scotland was then left without a
monarch, Edward I (Longshanks) of
England sent his troops into Scotland
with a view of taking control for
John de Balliol and William Wallace
tried in vain to remove the
From 1307, Robert the Bruce began a
campaign that ended with the signing of
a treaty in Edinburgh on the 17th March
1328, allowing Robert the Bruce to
become king of an independent
The descendants of Robert the Bruce,
the Stuart's, ruled Scotland after his
death in 1329.
The Stuart's went on to rule
Scotland from that time, and England
from 1603 until 1714.
War 1337 - 1453
The French House of Capet dynasty
came to an end in 1328, as the three
sons of Philip IV all failed to produce
surviving male heirs.
This began wars between the French
House of Valois and the British kings
that were descendants of the French
born William, Duke of Normandy, who
took control of England in 1066, to see
who would take over the throne of
The British captured Joan of
Arc in May 1430, and executed her
by burning on the 30th May 1431.
The Battle of Castillon in 1453 is
said to have been the last battle of
the Hundred Years War, seeing the
French king Charles VII taking full
The defeat is said to have pushed
Henry VI of England into a state of
insanity. Henry VI was then defeated in
the War of the Roses by Edward IV and
imprisoned in the Tower of London,
where he was murdered on the 21st May
Wallachian Wars 1460 –
These wars began between the forces
of Vlad III (the Impaler) (Dracula)
(Tepes) of Wallachia, and Mehmed II of
the Ottoman Empire, after Tepes invaded
Bulgaria and impaled over 23,000 Turks
Mehmed raised an army to conquer
Wallachia, and after a few skirmishes,
reached the Wallachian capital of
Targoviste, where he discovered another
20,000 impaled Turks and Bulgarians.
This sight led to the Ottomans calling
off the campaign.
Tepes was killed in battle with the
Turks in 1476 near Bucharest. It is
thought he was killed by his own men,
either by accident, or deliberate.
The Turks displayed his head on a
pike in Istanbul to prove his
His headless body was believed to
have been buried at a medieval
monastery on an island in Lake Snagov,
north of Bucharest/Romania.
In 1931, archaeologists searching
Snagov found a casket partially covered
in a purple shroud, embroidered with
gold. The contents, thought to be that
of Tepes, were taken to the History
Museum in Bucharest, they have since
disappeared without a trace.
Spanish conquest of
Mexico & the Aztec Empire
1519 – 1821
The Aztec Empire (modern day Mexico)
was destroyed by the arrival of the
Spaniards in 1519.
For three centuries after, Mexico
was colonized by Spain, a time when the
majority of its indigenous population
The war of independence from 1810,
ended with Mexico's independence from
Spain in 1821.
A war with the United States from
1846, ended with Mexico losing almost
half of its territory to the US in
France was the last country to
invade Mexico in 1862, ruling the
country until their defeat by the
Mexican Republican Army in 1867.
Religion 16th and 17th
The name Wars of Religion were given
to a series of European wars of the
16th & 17th Centuries after Martin
Luther, a German monk, had ideas that
influenced the Protestant Reformation,
splitting the Christian religeon based
on the Pope in Rome, into Protestant
Kings of Protestant countries then
became head of their countries
churches, this changing the course of
Western civilization, leading to a
number of wars.
Countries most affected by the wars
over Protestantism and Catholicism
were, Switzerland, France, Germany,
Austria, Bohemia, Netherlands, England,
Scotland, Ireland and Denmark.
In France alone, between 2 and 4
million people died during the Wars of
Spanish War 1585 –
The Anglo – Spanish War was
between the kingdoms of Spain and
Hostilities escalated after English
Privateers (said to be pirates by the
Spanish) were encouraged by the
Protestant Elizabeth I of England to
loot Spanish ships operating in the
As the war escalated, the English
had naval victories at Cadiz in 1587,
and over the Spanish Armada attacks on
England in 1588.
The war ended in 1604 with the
Treaty of London, between
representatives of Philip III of Spain,
and the new Scottish born king of
England, James I (Stewart).
James I was a distant relative of
Elizabeh I, who took control of England
as Elizabeth I failed to produce an
Spain agreed to stop their military
interventions in Ireland, England and
The English agreed to renounced high
Wars of the Three
Kingdoms 1639 – 1652
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms took
place in Scotland, Ireland, and England
between 1639 and 1651.
The English Civil War is the most
documented of these conflicts, as
Oliver Cromwell defeated king Charles I
(Stuart) to become Lord Protector of
England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles
I was beheaded at that time.
The Wars included the the Scottish
Civil War of 1644 – 1645, and the
Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in
Cromwell died on the 3rd September
1658, leaving his son Richard in
With Richard Cromwell loosing
support of the troops, Charles II
returned from exile in France as King
of England, Scotland and Ireland in
1660, restoring the Stuart's to the
In 1661, Oliver Cromwell's body was
exhumed from Westminster Abbey, hanged
in chains at Tyburn for some time, then
thrown into a pit. His head was
displayed on a pole outside Westminster
Abbey until 1685.
French and Indian
Wars 1689 – 1763
The French and Indian Wars were a
series of battles in North America with
Great Britain, its colonies and
American Indian allies on one side, and
France, its colonies and Indian allies
on the other.
Most of the North American fighting
ended when the Marquis de Vaudreuil
surrendered Montreal, and most of
Canada, to Britain.
The war officially ended with the
signing of the Treaty of Paris on the
10th February 1763. The treaty saw
France give up all its North American
land east of the Mississippi, all of
Canada, except Saint Pierre and
Miquelon, two small islands off
France was given back the Caribbean
islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique,
that had been occupied by the
Spain was awarded Louisiana,
including New Orleans, in compensation
for its loss of Florida to the
The British were then keen to keep
the peace with the various Indian
tribes, so stopped colonists from
moving further west.
By removing the French threat in
North America, the colonies no longer
needed the military might of Great
Britain, leading to talk of American
Unpopular taxes and restrictions on
colonial expansion west, were the main
reasons used to gain support for the
American War of Independence that began
Great Britain 1714 –
The Jacobite Risings were battles in
England and Scotland after the death of
Queen Anne (Stuart) on the 1st August
1714, leaving no heirs.
Queen Anne created the Act of Union
between Scotland and England, seeing
the creation of Great Britain on the
1st May 1707.
The English parliament chose her
second cousin, the German protestant,
George I, of the House of Hanover, to
succeed her to the throne. George I was
a distant descendant of the Stuart's
through his maternal grandmother,
Elizabeth, daughter of James I.
The Jacobite Risings were an attempt
to restore the catholic Stuart's to the
throne of Great Britain, people with a
more realistic claim to the throne.
The last Jacobite battle, led by
Charles Edward Stuart (the Young
Pretender), was a decisive defeated for
the Jacobites at the Battle of
Culloden in 1746, ending any hope
of a Stuart becoming king again.
American War of
Independence 1775 –
The American Revolutionary War, or
American War of Independence, was a
conflict between Great Britain, and
thirteen British colonies on the east
coast of North America.
The main causes of the war were, the
colonies began objecting to British
rule, taxes they had to pay to Britain,
and Britain was against the colonies
moving west into native Indian
George Washington led the American
forces that had the backing of about
45% of the colonists, many of the rest
remained loyal to the British.
An estimated 13,000 native Americans
fought on the side of Britain.
After the American forces showed
signs they could be successful, France
signed a Treaty with the Americans on
the 6th February 1778, and Spain
entered the war with France in June
The war came to an end after the
Treaty of Paris was signed on the 3rd
The last British troops left New
York City on the 25th November 1783.
This began a series of wars with
the native Indians, as the colonies
began spreading out west.
Wars 1803 - 1815
By 1789, the French people had
turned against King Louis XV1, with
revolutionaries gaining control of
France by 1792.
Louis XV1 was put on trial in
December of that year, and executed by
guillotine on the 21st January
A reign of terror then followed as
the new rulers began executing all
potential enemies in the country.
During six weeks leading up to July
1794, almost fourteen hundred people
were executed by guillotine in Paris
France was then ruled by different
government factions until Napoleon
became ruler of France in 1799, and
later, Emperor in May 1804.
As Napoleon then had the power he
craved, he set out to conquer all of
Europe, and defeat countries plotting
Napoleon soon took control of most
of Europe, and large areas of Russia,
before suffering defeats by the
combined armies of many European
His final defeat was by the British
commander Duke of Wellington at the
Battle of Waterloo.
Napoleon was then forced into exile,
spending the rest of his life on the
island of St Helena in the South
His death on the 5th May 1821, saw
him buried on the island.
His remains were taken from St
Helena in 1840, so they could be
reburied at the French army museum at
Invalides in the centre of Paris.
Napoleon is often credited with
being the greatest ever military
Mexican War of
Independence 1810 - 1821
The Mexican War of Independence was
between the people of Mexico and
Spanish colonial rulers, beginning on
the 16th September 1810.
The Spanish had rules Mexico since
invading the country in 1519.
On the 24th August 1821,
representatives of the Spanish crown
signed the Treaty of Cordoba,
recognizing Mexican independence,
ending Spanish colonial rule.
Revolution 1835 - 1836
The Texas Revolution, or Texas War
of Independence, began on the 2nd
October 1835, between Mexico and the
area of Texas, at that time, part of
the Mexican state.
The war ended at the Battle of San
Jacinto, about 20 miles east of where
Houston city is today. That battle saw
General Sam Houston lead the Texan Army
to victory over Mexican forces under
the Mexican President, Santa Anna, who
was captured after the battle.
The war ended with the creation of
the Republic of Texas.
The most notable battle of the Texas
Revolution was at The Alamo in 1836, a
mission and fortress compound, defended
by about 185 Texans under the command
of William Barret Travis, and Jim
The Battle of
the Alamo ended on the 6th of March
after a 13 day siege, all Texans were
Anglo - Afghan
Wars 1839 - 1921
Afghanistan was important to Britain
& Russia, as the British Empire in
the India wanted control of Afghanistan
to their north, and the Russian Empire
wanted control of Afghanistan to their
There were three wars between 1839
and 1921, where the Afghans themselves
tried to remove the British and
Russians from their land.
The most famous battle in the wars
was at the Khyber Pass, a mountain pass
connecting Afghanistan and
In January 1842, about 16,000
British and Indian troops were killed
in a battle at the the pass.
The wars came to an end with the
Treaty of Rawalpindi, signed on the 8th
The treaty stated the United Kingdom
should recognize Afghanistan's
independence, and agree the British /
Indian empire would never try to extend
past the Khyber Pass.
American War 1846 - 1848
The Mexican–American War began
after Mexico refused to recognize the
military victory by Texas in 1836,
acusing Texas of being a rebel
province, and refusing to sell America
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,
signed on the 2nd of February 1848,
ended the war with the U.S. taking
control of Texas, and the areas of
California, Nevada, Utah, parts of
Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and
Mexico was given U.S. $15,000,000,
under half the amount the U.S. had
offered Mexico before the war.
1853 - 1856
The Crimean War was fought between
the Russian Empire, and an alliance of
France, United Kingdom, Sardinia and
the Ottoman Empire.
The war was over European powers
wanting influence over territories of
the declining Ottoman Empire.
Most of the conflict took place on
the Crimean Peninsula, western Turkey,
and the Baltic Sea region.
Peace negotiations began in 1856
through the Congress of Paris, with
Russia agreeing not to establish any
naval or military bases on the Black
All the Countries involved signed to
state they would respect the
independence and territory of the
The Crimean War is best remembered
Nightingale, who became known as
The Lady with the Lamp, a pioneering
nurse and writer.
Also, the Charge of
the Light Brigade, a disastrous
cavalry charge led by the British Lord
Cardigan during the Battle of
Balaclava, on the 25th October
Lord Cardigan received unclear
instructs to charge guns. Instead of
charging a few British guns that had
been captured by the Russians, he led
over 600 of the Light Brigade straight
into the full force of the Russian army
Casualties were 156 men killed, 122
wounded and 335 horses destroyed.
War 1861 - 1865
In the presidential election of
1860, the Republican Party, led by
Abraham Lincoln, campaigned against the
expansion of slavery.
The Republican victory in that
election led to seven Southern states
withdrawing from the Union, even before
Lincoln took office on the 4th March
Hostilities began on the 12th April
1861, after Confederate forces attacked
a Union military installation at Fort
Sumter in South Carolina.
The war led to about 1,030,000
casualties, around 3% of the
population, about 620,000 soldies, two
thirds by disease.
The war ended after the Confederate
General Lee surrendered his Army in
Northern Virginia on the 9th April
General Johnston surrendered his
troops to Sherman on the 26th April
1865, in Durham, North Carolina.
On the 23rd June 1865, at Fort
Towson in the Choctaw Nations area of
Oklahoma Territory, General Stand Watie
signed a cease fire agreement with
Union representatives, being the last
Confederate general to stand down.
Victory for the Union saw the seven
breakaway states return to the Union,
and slavery abolished.
War 1861 - 1867
The French invasion of Mexico was by
the army of the Second French Empire,
supported by the British and
The war began after Mexican
President Benito Juarez stopped
interest payments to foreign countries
on the 17th July 1861.
The British, Spanish and French
fleets arrived at the Mexican port of
Veracruz between the 6th January and
8th January 1862.
The city of Campeche surrendered to
the French fleet on the 27th
After the Spanish and British
realized the French intended to conquer
Mexico, they withdrew their forces on
the 9th April.
The French took full control of
Mexico in 1864, claiming the Austrian,
I, was Emperor of Mexico.
Many foreign governments refused to
recognize this government, especially
the United States, that backed the
Republican forces led by Benito
Maximilian I was executed after his
capture by Republicans, in Santiago de
Queretaro in 1867.
The execution of Maximilian I, and
backing from the U.S., led to the
Republic of Mexico being restored in
Anglo - Zulu
The British, since 1824, had
established a trading post in South
Africa at Port Natal, now Durban, with
good relations with the indigenous
Until 1868, Natal had been
developing slowly, but after gold and
diamonds were discovered at Kimberley,
the area developed dramaticaly.
As British expansion in the area was
held back by the Zulu territory,
discussions began between the British
and the Zulu chiefs to agree a
Confederation of joint control.
As no agreement was reached, the
first invasions of Zululand took place
between January and April 1879.
The battle that led to the downfall
of the Zulu nation took place at their
capital of Ulundi, on the 4th July
There were many historic battles
throughout the war with up to 5,000
British troops facing up to 25,000 Zulu
warriors at a time.
Most Zulu successes, armed mainly
with spears, were picking off small
British convoys, although they were
successful in a few large battles.
The British won most of the major
battles, such as the most famous,
The Martini-Henry single-shot
lever action rifle was the weapon
British troops used in the campaign. A
.45 inch or 11 mm calibre weapon with a
killing range of about 400 yards.
Today, Zululand is part of the
Republic of South Africa.
War 1885 - 1887
There were three periods of conflict
between Britain and Burma from 1823 -
1887, with the wars beginning after
Burma tried to expand their land into
the British Empire in India.
Britain won a series of wars in the
early years, taking control of regions
The Third War led to British rule in
1886, with Burma becomming a province
of India, with the capital at
The end of WWII, led to Burma
gaining independence from Britain on
the 4th January 1948.
The British were so unpopular in
Burma at that time, the Burmese people
refused to join the British
India and Pakistan also gained
independance from Britain around that
time, and did join the
The most memorable history of Burma
was during WWII, in 1943, when a
Japanese invasion, with superior heavy
weapons, took thousands of Allied
Prisoners of War.
These prisoners and Asian labourers,
were forced to work on the 415 km long
Burma to Thailand railway, including
the bridge on the River Kwai.
Their are 2 war cemeteries in Burma
containing the remains of over 8,000
Australian, Dutch and British war
prisoners that lost their lives during
the construction of the Death
Russo - Japanese
War 1904 - 1905
The Russo – Japanese War was a
conflict between the Russian Empire and
Japanese Empire, over control of Korea
and Manchuria (a region between Russia
Japan needed minerals from these
countries, and Russia needed warm water
ports on the Pacific Ocean for its vast
After Japan broke off negotiations
and attacked the Russian fleet based at
Port Arthur (a Port in China leased to
Russia), the world’s military
experts were amazed when the mighty
Russian Eastern Fleet had either been
sunk, or blockaded in port.
The Russian Government responded to
that attack by sending their main fleet
of warships from the Baltic port of
Liepaja, to engage the Japanese.
They had to travel around the
African coast as the deep draught of
their battleships prevented them from
using the Suez Canal.
The Russian fleet was then
instructed to call at the port of
Vladivostock in Siberia, and from
there, attack Japanese Navy and cargo
After covering 18,000 miles, the
Russian’s were approaching the
Tsushima Strait on the 27th May 1905,
when they engaged the entire Japanese
The following battle ended with the
Russian fleet destroyed to an extent,
only a few ships managed to flee to
After that defeat, Russia was forced
to sign a peace treaty with Japan,
signaling Japan's status as a world
Most of Japans warships at that time
were British built, and their officers
World War I
1914 - 1918
World War One war began after the
assassination of the heir to the
Austro/Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz
Ferdinand, in Sarajevo on the 28th June
It was believed the Serbian
Nationalist Secret Society the, Black
Hand, had planned the
As Serbia refused to hand over the
conspirators, Austro/Hungary declared
war on Serbia on the 28th July
As Russia had signed a treaty with
Serbia, they sent their troops to
With Germany having signed a treaty
with Austro/Hungary, they declared war
on Russia on the 1st August 1914.
France declared war on Germany and
Austro/Hungary on the 3rd of August
1914 as they had also signed a treaty
As Britain and France were Allies,
Britain declared war on Germany on the
4th August 1914.
Japan declared war on Germany on the
23rd August 1914, as they had signed a
treaty with Britain in 1902.
America declared a policy of
Italy had signed a treaty with
Germany to help defend Germany in the
event of war. With Germany being the
aggressor, Italy declared a policy of
neutrality. Italy maintained that
stance until joining the war on the
side of the Allies in 1916.
America joined the war against
Germany in April 1917, as the German
unrestricted submarine warfare was
threatening United States commercial
As the First World War came to end,
after Germany accepted terms of
surrender on the 11th November 1918,
over 9,000,000 people had lost their
lives. The countries to suffer the
highest losses were Germany and their
Allies over 3,500,000, Russia
1,700,000, France 1,300,000, British
Empire 1,000,000, and the USA
Irish Wars of
Independence 1916 - 1922
Until the middle of the 1600s,
Dublin had remained a small, walled
medieval town. The English Civil War,
led to Oliver Cromwell taking control
of Dublin in 1649.
The town of around only 9000
residents at that time, began to grow
dramatically with Protestant refugees
from European countries settling in the
Over the following century, Dublin
grew dramatically, becoming the second
city of the British Empire.
The Act of Union between England and
Ireland in 1800, abolished the Irish
Parliament, this drastically reducing
With the wealth of the city
declining over the following century,
Irish Republicans led by James Connolly
and Patrick Pearse, began plotting to
gain control of Ireland in 1916.
The battle that broke out between
Republicans and British troops at
Easter in 1916, ended with James
Pearse and their top men
Although the Republicans had little
support from Dubliners at that time,
the execution of Connolly, Pearse and
12 of their men by firing squad in May
1916, led to the Republicans gaining a
massif increase in support, in Ireland
and from Irish Americans.
That extra support and finance, led
to the War of Independence, with
Ireland achieving independence in
War 1927 - 1949
The Chinese Civil War, was a civil
war in China between the Chinese
Nationalist Party and the Russian
supported Chinese Communist Party.
On the 21st April 1949, Communist
forces crossed the Yangtze River,
capturing the city of Nanjing, capital
of the Nationalist Party's Republic of
No legal document to end the Chinese
Civil War is said to have been signed.
With both the PRC and ROC still
existing, it seems the Chinese Civil
War has not been resolved legaly.
The Communists have ruled China ever
since, with a mutual mistrust with
capitalist countries around the
China dramaticaly began opening up
for trade with the west in the first
years of the 21st Century.
With China and its citizens new
found wealth, it should only be a
matter of time until China becomes a
true democratic country.
World War II
1939 - 1945
The Spanish Civil War came to an end
on the 28th March 1939, with the
Spanish dictator Franco taking control
of the Country, with the help of the
German forces were then set to begin
their attacks on countries Hitler had
chosen for conquest, mainly countries
awarded German land at the end of World
War One, and, as Hitler stated, Germany
should defeat France in war to avenge
the German humiliation of World War
Before Hitler sent his forces into
Poland, he signed a pact of non
aggression with the Soviet Union on the
23rd August 1939. This led to Hitler
beleiving his invasion of Poland on the
1st September 1939, would be accepted
by other countries.
Hitler had underestimated
governments around the world at that
time, as Britain, France, Australia and
New Zealand, responded to the invasion
of Poland by declaring war on Germany
on the 3rd September 1939.
Two days later, the United States
declared a state of neutrality. Canada
spent a week debating the situation,
then showed their support for Britain
by declaring war on Germany on the 10th
With the Soviets having invaded
Poland by that time, Warsaw was forced
to surrender to the Germans and Soviets
on the 27th September 1939.
Within a month of taking control of
Poland, the Nazis started carrying out
euthanasia on Germanys sick and
The Soviets were thrown out of the
League of Nations after they began
invading Finland, Lithuania, Latvia,
With Hitler seeing those invasions
as encroaching on German lands, he
launched operation Barbarossa (the
invasion of the Soviet Union on the
22nd June 1941).
The United States had imposed severe
sanctions on Japan, as Japan had been
taking control of Islands and mineral
rich areas of other countries
throughout the Far East in the late
These sanctions would have crippled
Japan, as they were dependant on the
import of oil to sustain their
countries needs. Japan had a choice of
either giving up all their conquests in
the Far East, or go to war with the
Germany, Italy and Japan formed an
alliance on the 27th September 1940.
This led to Italy carrying out attacks
on British forces throughout the
Mediterranean and North Africa, while
the Japanese planned the attack on
Pearl Harbor, on the 7th December
The United States declared war on
Japan the day after the Pearl Harbor
attacks. Germany responded in support
of Japan by declaring war on the United
States on the 11th December 1941.
German forces surrendered in Italy
on the 29th April 1945, in Western
Europe on the 7th May, and on the
Eastern Front on the 8th May.
Japan surrendered on the 15th August
The highest number of losses during
World War Two were, the Soviet Union
over 21,000,000, Germany 7,000,000,
Poland 6,850,000, Japan 1,800,000,
Yugoslavia 1,700,000, Romania 985,000,
France 810,000, Hungary 750,000,
Austria 525,000, Italy 410,000,
Czechoslovakia 400,000, Great Britain
388,000 and the USA 295,000.
Vietnamese War of
Independence 1946 - 1954
French Indochina was formed between
1887 and 1893 from the countries of
Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina, Cambodia
and Laos (an area that is now
The years after the Second World
War, saw the countries of French Indo
China take part in a series of
guerrilla wars to prevent the French
ruling them once again.
France’s defeat in 1954, led
to the Geneva Conference awarding power
to the nationalist governments of
Cambodia, Laos, North Vietnam, and
The North Vietnam government adopted
communism with strong backing from
Russia, this creating tensions in the
region as communism looked like it
could take over the entire region.
The Vietnam War followed in 1959,
between the communist north supported
by Russia, and capitalist south
supported by the U.S.
Indo-Pakistani War 1947 -
The First Indo-Pakistani War, often
referred to as the First Kashmir War,
was fought between India and Pakistan,
mainly over the region of Kashmir.
India gained independence from
Britain on the 15th August 1947. India
was then split into modern day India,
The borders were drawn to try and
split the different religions in the
region, Muslim, Sikh, and Hindu.
Pakistan was made up of the two
Muslim-majority areas in the eastern
and northwestern regions of British
India was to hold most of the Sikh,
At that time, up to 1 million people
are said to have been killed, and many
more forced to relocate to an area more
suitable for their religion.
Britain gained control of India in
1858, and expanded its borders over the
following 90 years.
Tension between India and Pakistan
has existed ever since they split into
two nations, mainly over the Kashmir
The First Indo-Pakistani War, was
mainly over control of Kashmir, in the
years 1947 - 1948.
Another two wars have been fought
over Kashmir, in 1965 and 1999.
Currently, Kashmir has been split in
two, with India and Pakistan
controlling an area each. Kashmir
remains one of the worlds military hot
Since early in the 21st Century,
India and Pakistan have joined China as
the fastest evolving economic nations.
Western nations are hoping this should
lead to more stability in the region,
as, the richer and more educated people
are, the less likely they are to
support, or volunteer for military
The down side for western nations
is, much of the wealth in the west will
be lost to these developing
India and Pakistan became nuclear
powers after developed nuclear weapons
in the 1990s.
War 1947 - 1948
Evidence of a Jewish presence in the
area of present day Israel dates back
The British took control of vast
areas of the Middle East during
After WWI, in 1920, the british
administration changed borders in the
area to created the state of Palestine,
an attempt to establish a homeland for
the Jewish people.
This area was mainly carved out of
southern Syria, containing a large
number of Israelis, and Arabs.
The Palestinian Civil War began over
the Arab and Jewish people wanting to
split Palestine into two different
On the 14th May 1948, the last
British forces left Haifa as the
Palestine Civil War escalated between
the Jewish and Arab communities.
This was the time when the Jews, led
by David Ben-Gurion, declared the
creation of the State of Israel, in
accordance with the 1947 UN Partition
Israel gained most of the land,
leading to the Arab Palestinians having
ongoing disputes with the Israelis over
land, and part of Jerusalem.
From that time on, Israel has had
disputes / wars with Palestine and
other Arab countries in the region over
borders, river water, and use of the
The greatest impact these wars had
on the world were when the Suez Canal
was blocked with damaged ships twice,
from 1956 - 1957 and 1967 - 1974.
These times caused instability
throughout the world, with fuel prices
increasing dramatically. Shipyards had
to start building Super
Tankers from that time to transport
oil from the Middle East to the west
around the Cape of Good Hope at
1950 - 1953
The Korean War between North Korea
and South Korea began on the 25th June
As WW II ended in September 1945,
the Soviets liberated the northern part
of Korea above the 38th parallel from
Japanese occupiers, and the USA
liberated the southern part from
This led to the splitting of Korea
with a northern government adopting
communism, and a southern government
In an attempt to unify north &
south Korea, backed by Stalin and using
Soviet weapons, the communist north led
by Kim Il-sung, invaded the south on
Sunday 25th June 1950.
The first large scale foreign
military intervention by U.S. &
United Nations forces began on the 5th
Hostilities escalated after China
entered the war on the side of North
Korea, with Chinese troops engaging
U.S. troops for the first time on the
1st November 1950.
An armistice was signed on the 27th
July 1953, after the death of about
400,000 South Koreans and 500,000 North
Foreign servicemen to die in combat
were about, 33,000 U.S., 2,100 UN, and
1959 - 1975
French Indochina was formed in
October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin,
Cochinchina, with the Kingdom of
Cambodia added after the Franco-Siamese
War of 1893. These countries are now
basicaly modern day Vietnam.
The years following the Second World
War, saw the countries of French Indo
China begin a series of guerrilla wars
to avoid being taken back under French
France’s defeat in the Indo
China war in 1954, led to the Geneva
Conference awarding power to the
nationalist governments of Cambodia,
Laos, North Vietnam and South
The Vietnam War, also known as the
Second Indochina War, was between the
communist Democratic Republic of
Vietnam (North Vietnam), supported by
its communist allies, and the Republic
of Vietnam (South Vietnam) supported by
The U.S. sent its first troops to
the war in 1965, in an attempt to
prevent comunism spreading throughout
Due to the lack of support for the
war in America, on the 15th January
1973, President Nixon of the U.S.
announced the suspension of offensive
action against North Vietnam.
The Paris Peace Accords were signed
on the 27th January 1973, ending direct
U.S. involvement in the Vietnam
The war ended with about 58,000 U.S.
soldiers killed, 3 - 4 million
Vietnamese from both sides, and up to 2
million Laotians and Cambodians.
Although the U.S. continued to arm
and train the South so they could
defend themselves, it was not enough to
prevent the North from attacking the
south again in 1974.
The North Vietnamese captured the
capital of the south, Saigon, in April
1975, leading to North and South
Vietnam being reunified the following
year, under comunist rule.
Soviet war in
Afghanistan 1979 - 1989
Afghanistan had been stable for 40
years under the rule of King Mohammad
Zahir Shah from the 8th Nov 1933 - 17th
The king was overthrown by former
Prime Minister Daud in 1973, creating
instability in the region once
The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a
9 year conflict involving Soviet forces
supporting the governing Marxist
People's Democratic Party of
Afghanistan (PDPA), against the
Mujahideen resistance fighting to
overthrow the Soviet backed
The Mujahideen were supported by a
number of sources such as: United
States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and
other Muslim nations.
The Mujahideen, with modern western
weapons, and fighters from the Muslim
world, made it impossible for the
Soviets to remain in Afghanistan.
The Soviet withdrawal in 1989 was
seen as similar to the the U.S.
withdrawal from Vietnam.
About 15,000 Soviet servicemen had
lost their lives, leading to Soviet
citizens demanding an end to the
At that time, no one had won the
war, or lost. The Soviet Union
collapsed in May 1992 when 12 of 15
republics declared their independence
from the Russian Empire.
The civil war continued in
Afghanistan until Kabul fell to the
Mujahideen in April 1992.
From that time, war between the
Mujahideen factions escalated with each
faction hoping to take full
In 1996, the Taliban, a faction of
Mujahideen soldiers, who identified
themselves as religious students, took
control of Afghanistan.
The Taliban ruled until the U.S.
backed invasion on the 7th October
That invasion received support from
most western countries, as as the
Taliban refused to hand over Osama bin
Laden for his alleged involvement in
11 attacks on New York.
Afghanistan has been a democratic
country again since 2002.
Revolution 1978 - 1979
The Iranian Revolution (also known
as the Islamic Revolution), was a
revolution that led to Iran changing
from monarchy rule under Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to an Islamic
republic rule under Ayatollah Ruhollah
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi had been
in control of Iran from the 14th
September 1941, until he was forced to
flee Iran during the Iranian Revolution
in the 1970s.
During the Shah's reign, Iran had
celebrated 2,500 years of continuous
monarchy since the creation of the
Empire by Cyrus the
The revolution seemed to be set off
by a series of events such as the
growth of the Islamic revival against
Westernization, shortage of goods,
strikes, and a claims the Royals were
only interested in their own
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini served
as the Supreme Leader of Iran from 1979
until his death on the 3rd June
On the 22nd October 1979, the exiled
Shah was taken to the United States for
medical treatment for lymphoma.
This led to revolts in Iran, and on
the 4th November 1979, a group of
students took control of the United
States embassy in Tehran, taking 63
American hostages, creating more
tension between Iran and western
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini then
began calling for an Islamic revolution
across the Muslim world.
The leader of Iraq, President Saddam
Hussein, responded by attacking Iran to
secure his own future, and take control
of Iranian oil fields.
Western governments backed Saddam
Hussein at that time, supplying Iraq
Although Western governments never
trusted Saddam Hussein, they used the
opportunity to try and destroy Iran,
that was seen as threatening world
Iran – Iraq
War 1980 - 1988
Since records began, wars have been
fought throughout the the Middle East
for control of the land.
After World War One, the British
were given the task of defining borders
to try and end the unrest.
The borders of modern day Iraq were
defined at that time. This led to
disputes between Iraq and Iran over
borders, mainly oil rich regions in
Iran, that Iraq believed should have
The Iranian Revolution of 1979
threatened the rule of President Saddam
Hussein of Iraq, as he was a Sunni
muslim, leading a country with a
majority of Shia muslims.
Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran had been
calling for the Shia of Iraq to rise up
and take control, similar to how Iran
had been taken over in the 1979
With the backing of many western
nations, Iraq launching a full scale
invasion of Iran on the 22nd September
The war came to and end on the 20th
August 1988 with a cease fire
Iraq casualties are thought to have
been between 160,000 and 240,000, Iran
casualties at least 300,000.
Although the war ended with no clear
winner, the influence of Iran in the
Middle East seemed to be greatly
1990 - 1991
The Gulf War (2nd August 1990
– 28th February 1991) began after
Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing Iraq's
oil through slant drilling.
Another reason was, Kuwait had been
influential in keeping the price of oil
low at that time.
Iraq believed they had an agreement
with western countries that backed them
in the war against Iran, that oil
prices would be higher to allow Iraq to
recover financially from their years of
Representatives from Iraq also
seemed to get the idea from some U.S.
diplomats, who had been backing Iraq in
the war with Iran, that an invasion of
Kuwait would be accepted by the
This however proved not to be
reality, as, a coalition force from 34
nations authorized by the United
Nations, but led by the United States
and the United Kingdom, responded to
the invasion of Kuwait by setting out
to return Kuwait to the control of the
Emir of Kuwait.
The overwhelming coalition forces
soon forced Iraqi forces out of Kuwait,
leading to U.S. President Bush
declaring a cease fire on the 27th
U.S. forces had 148 battle related
deaths, and the UK 47 deaths.
Iraq had between 20,000 and 35,000
Wars 1991 - 2001
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of
conflicts involving all of the six
former Yugoslav republics.
These were mainly ethnic conflicts
between Serbs on one side, and Croats,
Bosnians and Albanians on the
The wars peaked between 1996 and
1999 during the Kosovo War, between
mainly Christian Serbian forces and the
Kosovo Liberation Army, that were
mainly a Muslim Albanian guerrilla
group, trying to break away from the
Serbian forces began ethnic
cleansing, executing thousands of
Muslim men of fighting age.
Most people were shocked, after
scenes like Hitler's WWII were shown to
be taking place in a European country
during the 1990s.
The Serbian forces received backing
from their citizens by spreading hate
and disgust over the foreign fighters
with the KLA, beheading Serb soldiers
It is unclear just how many
executions by beheading took place, the
KLA stated Serb forces made up a lot of
the allegations to obtain support for
Although NATO moved into the region
in 1999, mainly taking military action
against Serb forces, it took a further
two years to put an end to the
NATO forces are expected to remain
in the region as peace keepers for many
Leaders from all sides are
continually being hunted down and tried
for War Crimes.
The War in Afghanistan began on the
7th October 2001, after the United
States and United Kingdom responded to
the 11th September 2001 attacks on the
World Trade Centre in New York, and
Pentagon building in Washington.
There were 2,974 deaths by the
attacks, mainly civilians, after muslim
extremists flew 3 aircraft into the
buildings. This began the ongoing War
The stated purpose of the invasion
of Afghanistan was to capture Osama bin
Laden, destroy al-Qaeda, and remove the
Taliban regime that was providing
support and training for al-Qaeda and
other terror groups.
Within 3 months, the Taliban had
been removed from power, although they
have continued to harass Afghan and
foreign troops in an attempt to regain
power, and keep control of the
lucrative drug business that supplies
most of the heroin to Europe.
The attacks on U.S. buildings and
citizens were thought to have been
planned by the Saudi born Osama bin
Laden, the son of a wealthy Saudi with
a vast construction business.
Osama bin Laden provided finances,
hardware and fought with the Mujahideen
in Afghanistan during the 1980s, in the
successful quest to remove the Soviet
backed government from power in
Afghanistan, and Soviet forces from the
At that time, foreign, mainly muslim
fighters, received military hardware
from the U.S. and other western
countries for the war. The never ending
supply of weapons, especially surface
to air missiles, made it impossible for
the Soviets to remain in the area due
to mounting casualties.
The U.S. and other western countries
again provided Muslim fighters with
weapons, and even fought alongside them
in the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s.
The Gulf War of 1990 - 1991 saw U.S.
and other western forces based in Saudi
Arabia to protect that country and
liberate Kuwait from Iraqi
Osama bin Laden had tried to persued
the Saudi leaders, that if Iraq invaded
Saudi Arabia, he and the Mujahideen
fighters from around the Muslim world
would fight a war similar to that in
Afghanistan against the Soviets.
The Saudi refusal to take him
serious, and opt for the guaranteed
protection of the U.S., led to Osama
bin Laden returning to Afghanistan
where he began orchestrating the war of
terror on the west, countries that had
suported their cause during 3 major