Inventions through History
Below is a list of Inventions that
led to the World we see today.
Cars built from 1884 in London,
first Modern Battery Powered Cars 2010,
but still being researched.
Battery Powered Cars work by
Electricity being stored in Batteries,
with the Batteries then used to power
an Electric Motor.
Electric Cars were built in London
in the 1880s, seen as the way of the
future as they had no emissions. Cities
at that time were polluted with Coal
powering most Industries, and used in
The Mass Production of Petrol Cars
began 1908, and Crude Oil was
discovered in the Middle East in 1908,
giving a seemingly endless supply of
inexpensive Petrol, more or less ending
the evolution of Battery Powered
1996 to 1999 - as Climate Change and
Smog in Cities became a serious
concern, General Motors built over
Electric Cars for Lease in Califoria /
USA, normally to famous people such as
the actor Tom Hanks, with most people
giving them great reviews.
2002 - General Motors repossessed
all their EV1s, leading to claims
Petroleum Companies had forced them to
put an end to their Battery Powered
Cars. A Film
was even made about how the Cars were
2010 - the Nissan Leaf was the first
mass produced Car powered by Batteries.
Most other Car Manufacturers have since
The main problem for Manufacturers
is to produce Batteries that give More
Range, Charge Faster, Last Longer, and
are Less Expensive, something that is
proving extremely difficult.
Countries also have to produce more
Green Energy to Charge the Batteries,
and install millions of Charging
A Scramjet is a Jet Engine with no
moving parts. It works by air entering
the front of the Engine, which is
large, then being compressed as it
passes through the Engine which gets
narrower in the middle. Fuel is then
added to the compressed air, giving
Scramjet's only work after they are
traveling at high speeds, when air is
being forced through the engine, cannot
fly from a standstill.
A remote controlled NASA Scramjet
reached 9 times the speed of sound in
2011 before crashing. They are expected
to be able to reach 24 times the Speed
The fastest Aircraft before this was
the Lockheed SR-71
"Blackbird" spy plane that traveled
about 3 times the Speed of Sound.
This type of propulsion has been
attempted from the early 1900s with
little success. A Scramjet aircraft is
expected to cut the flight time between
London and Australia from 21 hours to
under 2 hours.
Optical Fibers are now widely used
in Fiber-Optic communications, allowing
transmission of data over longer
distances at higher bandwidths than
other forms of communication before,
such as Wires.
Telephones and the Internet are the
most well known users of this
invention. Although the transmitting of
data by Fibre Optics has been tested
for over 100 years, it was not until
1980 that companies began using Fibre
Optics to link large Cities.
Nobody has been credited with
inventing the modern day Fibre Optic
system. Claims have been made the
system was back-engineered from crashed
Phones first Landline Phones
1860, first public Phone Boxes 1881,
first Mobile Phones 1983, first Smart
The first Mobile Phones were sold
from 1973, large devices with aerials
that had to be pulled up.
1996 - the first of the small Mobile
Phones were sold, some about 3 inches
high, easily fitting in pockets, and
2007 - the first Smart Phones were
sold, and by 2020, about 50% of people
on the Internet were using Smart
Phones, leading to a fall in sales of
2014 - the first of the Plus size
Smart Phones are sold, big enough to
allow viewing Websites and Gaming at a
reasonable size, and just fit in
Computers early 1970s/ Internet
born 1987/ first Computers that can be
compared to today's late 1990s.
Personal Computers were developed
from the early 1970s by companies such
as Hewlett Packard, Xerox, Apple,
Macintosh, IBM, Microsoft and
In 1984, Apple Computers introduced
the first reliable and affordable Mouse
for Point and Click navigation through
the Computer. This allowed the mass
production of user friendly Point and
Click software, leading to the Personal
Computers seen today.
This first Apple Computer was
extremely limited with only 128 KB of
Ram Memory (Fast Memory). If a
Computers Ram is overloaded, it
Crashes. By the early 1990s, Ram Memory
began increasing from 2 MB, about 20
times that of the first Apple. By the
early 2000s, computers were appearing
with 128 MB of Ram, that is still
enough for some people today, although
easily overloaded to a crash using high
Ram has steadily increased to 20 GB
in 2010s, that is the equivalent of
20,480 MB. I GB of Ram can cope easily
with Video Editing, so it seems Ram
reaching 20 GB has been for use in
Gaming Computers, that seem never to
have enough memory.
1997 - WiFi began being sold to
allow Computers, Laptops, and Tablets
to be used around a home without a
Direct Connection. Wifi Speeds improved
over the following years.
Late 1980s - the first Compact
Laptops were being sold, mainly to
Business people. By the early 2000s,
new Batteries, WiFi, and Compact
Hardware, meant Laptops could do almost
anything a Computer could, leading to
some people using them as their Home
1989 - the first Tablet Computers
were produced. By the early 2000s,
Tablets were becomming really popular,
as by that time, they could be used to
surf the Internet and play Games as
fast as many Computers, also, less
expensive than a Computer.
2007 - the first Smart Phones were
being sold, and by 2020, about 50% of
people using the Internet were doing so
by Smart Phones or Tablets, leading to
a crash in sales of Computers and
Machines first large machines
for Arcades 1950s, first home Games
The first Game Playing Machines were
large, mainly used in Arcades and Pubs,
such as Asteroids.
1975 - the Atari Pong was the first
Home Game Console, followed by
Colour-TV Game in 1977, Atari 1986,
Sega Genesis 1988, PlayStation 1994,
Nintendo 1996, Dreamcast 1998, Xbox
2005, and Wii 2006.
Top Classic Games include: Space
Invaders 1978, Pac-Man 1980, Donkey
Kong 1981, Alien 1982, Super Mario Bros
1985, Street Fighter 1987, Lemmings
1991, Tomb Raider 1996, Sonic the
Hedgehog 1991, Grand Theft Auto 1997,
The Legend of Zelda 1998.
Today include: Minecraft 2009, Call
of Duty 2009, PlayerUnknown's
Battlegrounds 2017, Resident Evil
Most top Games run on Home Computers
. Classic Games
/ Silicon Chip / Micro Chip
An Integrated Circuit is an
Electronic Circuit manufactured into a
thin form of semiconductor material,
now normally Silicon.
Integrated Circuits are now used in
virtually every Electronic device,
making them more reliable, less
expensive, and a fraction of the
Although the Integrated Circuit was
being pursued from the early 1900s, it
wasn't until the 1960s/1970s that the
invention was mass produced for public
The first hand held Calculator was
developed in 1967, first Digital Watch
in 1974, with Computers and Games soon
Jack Kilby, who produced the first
hand held Calculator, is probably the
most recognized inventor of the
Integrated Circuit, receiving the Nobel
Prize in Physics in the year 2000.
Integrated_circuit . Timeline
first Satellite 1957, first human 1961,
first Moon landing 1969
1608 - the first Telescope was
invented, allowing Humans to document
Planets and Stars.
1944 - Rockets used during World War
Two were reaching the Edge of
1957 - the first Satellite to Orbit
the Earth was the Soviet built Sputnik
1961 - the first Human Space flight
was Vostok 1, with the Russian
cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.
1969 - The first Landing on the Moon
was the US built Apollo 11, with
Commander Neil Armstrong the first Man
to Walk on the Moon.
1971 - the first Space Station was
launched by the Soviets.
1972 - the last US Spacecraft Landed
on the Moon, with Eugene Cernan the
last Person the Walk on the Moon.
2018 - Virgin Galactic reached an
altitude of 82.7 kilometres (51.4 mi),
entering outer space. There are now a
number of Private Companies like this
looking at taking Passengers into Space
for about £250,000 per person.
Power first Nuclear Bomb 1940s,
first Nuclear Power Station 1951.
1942 - The first Nuclear Reactor was
built in the USA to make Nuclear
1945 - first Nuclear Bomb was was
test exploded in New Mexico / USA. Two
Nuclear Bombs were then dropped on
Japan later that year to end the Second
1951 - Electricity was first produce
from a Nuclear Reactor in Idaho / USA,
with countries around the World soon
1955 - the first Nuclear Powered
Submarine entered service,
with the USS
Enterprise Aircraft Carrier
completed for the US Navy in 1962, the
first of many Nuclear Powered
1956 - the US tested a Nuclear
Powered Aircraft, showing Nuclear
Power was unsuitable for Aircraft.
Nuclear Power is clean energy, but
extremely dangerous, as if a Plant
blows up, it devastates a vast area
around for hundreds of years through
The high cost of producing these
Plants, high cost of disposing the old
Radioactive Fuel, and high cost of
maintaining the Plants for hundreds of
years after they close, makes Nuclear
Power one of the most expensive ways to
Nuclear Fuel is made from Uranium, mainly mined in
Australia, Canada and Kazakhstan.
1923/ first regular broadcasts 1929/
colour TVs from 1950s.
The Scottish engineer John Logie
Baird designed the world's first
working Television in 1923. His first
public demonstration took place in
Selfridges department store in London
in March 1925.
The BBC began the World's first
regular Television broadcasts in
January 1929, using Baird's system.
Mass production of TVs between 1945
and 1956, saw them appear in most
reasonably well off homes.
Colour TVs were sold in the US from
the 1950s, and in the UK and Europe
from the 1960s, although it was the
1970s before they were commonplace, 28
to 32 inch screens were seen as large
The first Remote Controls emerged in
The first consumer Videocassette
Recorders were launched in 1971.
The first DVD Players were sold
around the world from 1996 to 1999.
The first large Plasma TVs were
manufactured in 1997 with 42 inch High
Definition (HD) screens.
By 2004, large Liquid-Crystal
display (LCD) HD TVs were being sold as
an alternative to Plasma TVs. By 2005,
Plasma and LCD's had put and end to the
old Tube type TVs.
2013 - the first LCD, Ultra HD TVs
were sold, also known as 4K TVs,
leading to the end of Plasma TVs.
2019 - the first 8K TVs were sold,
leading to even clearer screens.
Aircraft 1903/ first passenger
service 1919/ first direct
Transatlantic passenger service
The first successful, powered,
piloted Flight took place in 1903 by
the Wright Brothers. This first Flight
lasted just 12 seconds.
World War One (1914-1919) saw
increased development of Aircraft with
speeds being achieved by the end of the
War at over 100 mph, carrying guns and
Britain and France introduce
one of the first Passenger services in
1919, this being across the English
Channel between London and
World War Two (1939-1945) saw
Aircraft speed increase to over 400
Jet Engines were being tested in
Fighter Aircraft in the last year of
World War Two, capable of reaching over
The British built De Havilland
became the first Jet powered Passenger
Service, flying between London and
South Africa in 1952. The Comet also
provided the first direct Transatlantic
Passenger Service, this between London
and New York in 1958.
The German inventor Rudolph Diesel
unveiled his first efficient Diesel
Engine in 1893.
This Engine works by the Piston
pushing up compressing the air at the
top of the Chamber making it hot, then
Diesel is Injected into the hot air at
the top of the Chamber to make the
Combustion, this pushing the Piston
back down. There are no Spark Plugs in
a Diesel Engine.
Diesel can be obtained from Refined
Crude Oil pumped out of the ground, and
from Vegetable Oils, but making Diesel
for Plants pushes up the price of
The first Boat powered by a Diesel
Engine was in 1903.
The first Submarine to use Diesel
Engines was in 1904. The Diesel Engine
was used on the surface and electric
power when submerged.
The first Car produced with a Diesel
Engine was a Citroen in 1933.
Most of the worlds largest Ships,
and largest Trucks, are now powered by
massive Diesel Engines.
The first fairly large Transatlantic
Liner to be powered by Diesel Engines
was the 573 feet long SS
Gripsholm that entered service in
Petrol / Gasoline
Engine 1887/ large scale
production of Cars for the Public from
Gottlieb Daimler invented what is
recognized as the prototype of the
modern Gas/Petrol Engine.
His first Engine had a vertical
cylinder with Gasoline injected through
a carburetor. He patented the Engine
design in 1887.
Daimler first built a two-wheeled
vehicle named the Reitwagen (Riding
Carriage), then a year later, built the
world's first four-wheeled Motor
Petrol / Gasoline is obtained from
refining Crude Oil pumped out of the
ground. Ethanol produced from Plants
can also run Petrol Engines, but this
would push up the price of food.
A Petrol Engine works with a mixture
of Petrol/Gasoline and Air fed into the
top of a cylinder as a Piston is close
to the top, a Spark is then sent into
the mixture to create an Explosion to
push the Piston down.
Petrol engines are normally used in
cars, motor bikes and lawnmowers, as
they give a high performance.
Diesel Engines tend to last longer
and get more miles to the gallon, but
have less performance and produce more
The first affordable mass produced
Petrol Engine Cars where the Model T
Ford that went on sale in 1908.
1800/ first Light Bulbs 1880s/ first
Electric Sockets 1910s
Although Electricity had been known
about for centuries, Alessandro Volta
was the first to make use of it by
manufacturing Batteries from 1800.
Light Bulbs were invented in the
late 1870s, but were not common in
Homes until the 1930s.
The first Electric Kettle was seen
in 1886, first Electric Iron in 1881,
first thermostatically controlled
Electric Iron in the 1920s, first
Electric Hoovers in the 1930s.
Although Electric Fridges were being
mass produced from 1927, Electric
Fridges and Washing Machines did not
become common in working class Homes
until the 1960s, due to their high
The first Florescent Lamps were
installed in Factories in 1904.
Compact Florescent Light Bulbs
(CFLs), also known as Energy-Saving
Light Bulbs, were introduced in the
Original Light Bulbs were supposed
to have been fazed out by 2012.
The first Windmills for producing
Electricity were built from 1888, with
Global Warming leading to a vast
increase in Windmills being built
around the World in the early 2000s.
Scotland was probably the first Country
to produce enough Electricity from its
Windmills for all its needs in 2016,
this being when the weather is
1698/ Passenger Steam Trains from 1807/
London to Aberdeen line opened in 1850
covering 500 miles.
Although Inventors had been
experimenting with Steam Power for
centuries, it was Thomas Savery who
built the first practical device in
1698 for pumping water out of Coal
In 1765, James Watt patented a new
design of Steam Engine that became the
design used over the following 200
The first Steamboat entered the
water in 1787 when John Fitch made the
first successful trial of a
forty-five-foot Steamboat on the
Delaware River in the USA. The largest
Liners of the early 1900s were all
powered by Steam Engines, Piston first,
then Steam Turbines.
The first Steam Train ran in 1804
near Merthyr Tydfil in Wales. The first
Passenger Service began from Swansea in
Wales in 1807. The first Steam Trains
began running in the US in 1830.
By 1869, Steam Trains could travel
between the East and West coast of the
US by the transcontinental Central
The first Diesel powered Trains
began entering service in 1912, but
took until the 1950s before they really
began taking over from Steam
Diesel Engines were installed in
fairly large ships from the 1920s.
around 3,500 BC
The first Wheeled Vehicles seem to
have appeared about 3,500 BC, around
the Mediterranean and in Europe.
The earliest Wheels were simple
wooden disks with a hole drilled for
The first wooden spoked Wheels were
manufactured around 2,000 BC, with the
wooden spoked Wheel design lasting
until the 1870s.
From the 1870s, wire and steel
Wheels with Pneumatic Tyres were
manufactured and improved to what can
be seen today.
The largest Vehicle
Wheels so far are about 14 feet in
diameter including Tyres.
Animals around 10,200 BC
The Domestication of Animals is
thought to have began during the
Neolithic Period that started around
10,200 BC. Their primitive agriculture
lead to Farming as can be seen today,
with Animals reared for food, and also
used for pulling farming
The first working Elephants were
used in India around 3,300 BC.
The domestication of Horses is
believed to have began around 2,500
Horses then remained the main
working Animal until replaced by Motor
Vehicles in the early 1900s. Some
Horses were still being used in
Farming and Industry until the
Weapons around 5 Million BC
The use of Objects as Weapons and
Tools has been noted among Chimpanzees,
this leading to speculation the first
Humans, around 5 Million BC, would also
have used Weapons.
The earliest Tools and Weapons were
made of wood and stone, and later, a
combination of wood and stone.
The earliest metal Weapons and Tools
were made of Copper during the Copper
Age around 3,300 BC, followed by the
Bronze Age around 1,700 BC, and Iron
Age 1,300 BC.