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People List




1162 - 1227

Early Mongolia was divided into several tribal regions. The tribes of each region were nomadic horsemen who traveled around the land grazing their animals.

Genghis Khan was born on the banks of the River Onon near the border of Northern Mongolia and Russia. His original name was Temutin. His father, Yesugei, was a local chieftain and nephew of a former Khan (ruler) who lead a Mongol tribe that played a leading role in Eastern Mongolia.

After defeat by a rival tribe, the Tartar, Yesugei lost his authority and became the leader of an ordinary tribe. At the age of nine, Temutin was taken by his father to visit his mothers tribe, the Konkirat, in the east of Mongolia. When they arrived, Temutin was besotted with the chieftains ten year old daughter Borte. His father left him at that time to be raised by the Konkirat.

On his return home, Yesugei encountered a party of Tartars who invited him to share a feast. As the Tartars soon realized they were feasting with an old enemy, they poisoned his food. Yesugei lived long enough to return home and send for his son to succeed him as chieftain.

After his fathers death, a clan named Taich’ut, took control of the tribe, expelling Yesugei's wife and young children, leaving them to fend for themselves.

When Temutin was a young man, he was captured by the Taich’ut. His escaped from the Taich’ut saw him visit the Konkirat to claim his bride Borte.

Toghril, a chieftain of a tribe from Central Mongolia, who had been a friend of his father, offered to help protect Temutin and his bride.

After a series of tribal wars that saw Temutin show extraordinary bravery, the Mongol leaders acclaimed him, Genghis Khan, that name meaning Universal Monarch. From then on, he played a major role in the tribal wars.

Genghis Kahn image

Genghis Khan

In 1202, he led a campaign against the Tartars that ended with the total destruction of the Tartar people. By 1206, he had taken control of all Mongolia, with which he was awarded the title, Great Khan. He then began to organize his military forces from his empire so he could embark on foreign conquests.

In 1211, he began attacking China, and by 1215, had captured Beijing. In 1216, he returned to Mongolia to concentrate on the events of Central Asia. At that time, to the west of Mongolia, was the vast empire of Sultan Muhammad. That empire covered Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and most of Iran.

In 1219, Genghis set out to conquer the empire of the Sultan. By 1221, he had conquered the cities of Otrar and Bukhara. When he captured Samarqand, the Sultan fled west. Genghis then sent two of his generals after him. The Generals caught up with, and killed the Sultan, on an island in the Caspian Sea. At that time, he had also sent his eldest sons north to Khwarism to destroy the Sultans capital.

In 1220, Genghis captured Amu Darya, and in 1221, crossed into Afghanistan where he captured Balkh. He then sent his youngest son to destroy the cities of Mary in Turkmenistan, and, Neyshabur in Iran. At that time, the Sultans son had made his way into Afghanistan where he defeated Genghis in battle at Parvan, north of Kabul.

Once Genghis was rejoined by his sons and generals, he defeated the Sultans son on the banks of the Indus River. With the conquest of Central Asia complete, Genghis returned to Mongolia to continue the war with China.

In august 1227, Genghis Khan died in his summer quarters in the district of Qingshui, south of the Liupan Mountains in China.

His sons and grandsons extended the Mongol empire into Russia, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and China.

The Mongolian Empire, and the Genghis Khan descendants, came to an end in 1368 when the Chinese, Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644) came to power.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genghis_Khan People List