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Alexander the Great 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC
Alexander the Great, also known as Alexander III of Macedon, was one of the most successful military commanders in history, presumed undefeated in battle. By the time of his death, he had conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks. Many military commanders throughout history, and even to the present day, were influenced by Alexander the Great.

Roman conquest of Britain AD 43
The Roman Conquest of Britain began with the expedition of Julius Caesar in 55 and 54 BC. Britain was an island split into many kingdoms at that time, many of which welcomed the Romans. As most of the Scottish tribes refused to accept the Romans, they built Hadrian's wall across northern England to keep the Scottish tribes at bay. The most famous of the English tribes to try and remove the Romans from Britain was the Iceni tribe of East Anglia, led by Queen Boudica in AD 60 or 61. Although Boudica failed in her attempt to crush the occupiers, ever increasing attacks on the Romans in Britain and Europe forced their departure from Britain in 410.


Viking raids across Europe 793 - 1066
Viking refers to a member of the Norse (Scandinavian) peoples, famous as explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates, who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the late 8th to the early 11th Century. These Norsemen used their famed longships to travel as far east as Constantinople and the Volga River in Russia, and as far west as Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland.


Battle of Clontarf 1014 (April 23)
The Battle of Clontarf took place on Good Friday in 1014 (April 23) between the forces of the Irish Kings, Brian Boru and Máel Mórda mac Murchada, the later army containing many Viking mercenaries from Dublin and the Orkney Islands. Although killed in the battle himself, Brian Boru and his forces had succeeded in removing Viking influence from Ireland. The Battle of Largs (Scotland) October 2nd 1263, between king Hakon Hakonsson of Norway and Scottish forces of king Alexander III, was the beginning of the Viking withdrawal from Scotland.


Canute the Great Conquest of England 1016
Canute was a son of the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark. He became one of the most famous people in history after conquering England in 1016, becoming King of England along with Denmark, Norway and parts of Sweden. Canute died in 1035, at Shaftesbury, in Dorset. He was buried in Old Minster, at Winchester. The weak rule of his descendants led to the French / Norman invasion of England beginning in 1066 AD by the troops of William, Duke of Normandy (William the Conqueror), and his victory at the Battle of Hastings, this being last successful conquest of England and the beginning of modern day Britain.


Crusades 1096 – 1291
The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe mainly against Muslims, though campaigns were also directed against pagan Slavs, Jews, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Waldensians, Old Prussians and political enemies of the popes. The first Crusade began in 1095 when Pope Urban II called upon all Christians to join a war against the Turks, promising those who died in the endeavor would receive immediate remission of their sins. The most notable Crusades were battles between Christians and Muslims for control of the Holy Lands and Jerusalem.


Mongol conquests 1205 – 1312
The Mongol Empire emerged in the course of the 13th Century by a series of conquests and invasions throughout Central and Western Asia, reaching Eastern Europe by the 1240s. Genghis Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire, declared Khagan (emperor) of one of the largest empires in history. The building of the Mongol Empire is thought to have caused the death of between 30 and 60 million people.


Wars of Scottish Independence 1296 – 1328
King Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286 and his eight-year-old heir, Margaret, died four years later. As Scotland was then left without a monarch, Edward I (Longshanks) of England sent his troops into Scotland with a view of taking control for himself. John de Balliol and William Wallace tried in vain to remove the English. From 1307, Robert the Bruce began a campaign that ended with the signing of a treaty in Edinburgh, March 17th 1328, allowing Robert the Bruce to become king of an independent Scotland. The descendants of Robert the Bruce, the Stuart's, ruled Scotland after his death in 1329. The Stuart's went on to rule Scotland from that time, and England from 1603 until 1714.


Hundred Years' War 1337 - 1453
The French House of Capet dynasty came to an end in 1328, when the three sons of Philip IV all failed to produce surviving male heirs. This began wars between the French House of Valois and the British kings that were descendants of the French born William, Duke of Normandy who took control of England in 1066, to see who would take over the throne of France. The British captured Joan of Arc in May 1430 and executed her by burning May 30th 1431.The Battle of Castillon in 1453 is considered the last battle of the Hundred Years' War seeing the French king Charles VII taking full control. The defeat led to Henry VI of England descending into a state of insanity. Henry VI was then defeated in the War of the Roses by Edward IV and imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he was murdered May 21st 1471.


Ottoman - Wallachian Wars 1460 – 1476
These wars began between the forces of Vlad III (the Impaler) (Dracula) (Tepes) of Wallachia and Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire, after Tepes invaded Bulgaria and impaled over 23,000 Turks and Bulgarians. Mehmed then raised an army to conquer Wallachia. After a few skirmishes, Mehmed marched to the Wallachian capital of Targoviste, where he discovered another 20,000 impaled Turks and Bulgarians. Tepes was killed in battle with the Turks in 1476 near Bucharest. It is thought he was killed by his own men, either by accident, or deliberate. The Turks displayed his head on a pike in Istanbul to prove his death. His headless body was believed to have been buried at a medieval monastery on an island in Lake Snagov, north of Budapest/Romania. In 1931, archaeologists searching Snagov found a casket partially covered in a purple shroud embroidered with gold. The contents, thought to be that of Tepes, were taken to the History Museum in Bucharest, they have since disappeared without a trace.


Spanish conquest of Mexico & the Aztec Empire 1519 – 1821
The Aztec Empire (modern day Mexico) was destroyed by the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519. For three centuries, Mexico was colonized by Spain, during which time the majority of its indigenous population died off. The war of independence from 1810 resulted in independence from Spain in 1821. A war with the United States from 1846 ended with Mexico losing almost half of its territory in 1848. France was the last country to invade Mexico in 1862, ruling the country until their defeat by the Mexican Republican Army in 1867.


Wars of Religion 16th and 17th centuries
The name Wars of Religion has been given to a series of European wars of the 16th & 17th Centuries. Martin Luther was a German monk, whose ideas influenced the Protestant Reformation (splitting the Christian religeon based on the Pope in Rome into Protestant and Catholic, with kings of Protestant countries becoming head of their countries churches) this changing the course of Western civilization. Countries most affected by the wars over Protestantism and Catholicism, were Switzerland, France, Germany, Austria, Bohemia, the Netherlands, England, Scotland, Ireland and Denmark. In France alone, between 2 and 4 million people died during the Wars of Religion.


Anglo – Spanish War 1585 – 1604
The Anglo – Spanish War (1585 – 1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England. The beginning of hostilities escalated after English Privateers (considered pirates by the Spanish) were encouraged by the Protestant Elizabeth I of England to loot Spanish ships operating in the Atlantic. As the war escalated, the English enjoyed naval victories at Cadiz in 1587, and over the Spanish Armada in 1588. The war was brought to an end with the Treaty of London, negotiated in 1604 between representatives of Philip III of Spain and the new Scottish born king of England, James I (Stewart) (a distant relative of Elizabeh I who took control of England as Elizabeth I failed to produce an heir). Spain agreed to cease their military interventions in Ireland, and England, their interventions in the Spanish Netherlands, also, the English renounced high seas piracy.


Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1639 – 1652
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651. The English Civil War is the most documented of these conflicts after Oliver Cromwell defeated Charles I (Stuart) to become Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles I was beheaded at that time. The Wars included the the Scottish Civil War of 1644 – 1645 and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1649. Cromwell died September 3rd 1658 leaving his son Richard in control. With Richard Cromwell loosing support of the troops, Charles II returned from exile in France as King of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1660, restoring the Stuart's to the throne. In 1661, Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey, hanged in chains at Tyburn for a time, then disinterred before being thrown into a pit. His severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Abbey until 1685.


French and Indian Wars 1689 – 1763
The French and Indian Wars were a series of conflicts in North America with Great Britain, its colonies and American Indian allies on one side, and France, its colonies and Indian allies on the other. Most of the North American fighting ended when the Marquis de Vaudreuil surrendered Montreal, and effectively all of Canada, to Britain. The war officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris February 10th 1763. The treaty resulted in France's loss of all its North American possessions east of the Mississippi, all of Canada was ceded to Britain, except Saint Pierre and Miquelon, two small islands off Newfoundland. France regained the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, which had been occupied by the British. Spain gained Louisiana, including New Orleans, in compensation for its loss of Florida to the British.

The British were then keen to keep the peace with the various Indian tribes so prohibited colonists from engaging in further westward expansion. By eliminating the French threat in North America, the British had in fact removed one of the strongest incentives the colonies had for retaining their links with Great Britain and their military might. Unpopular taxes, restrictions on colonial expansion, and concessions given to Quebec's Catholic population, all contributed to the beginning of the American War of Independence.


Jacobite Risings Great Britain 1714 – 1691
The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings and wars in England and Scotland after the death of Queen Anne (Stuart) August 1st 1714, leaving no heirs. Queen Anne was responsible for the Act of Union between Scotland and England, seeing the creation of Great Britain May 1st 1707. The English parliament chose her second cousin, the German protestant, George I, of the House of Hanover to succeed her to the throne. George I was a distant descendant of the Stuart's through his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth, daughter of James VI & I. The Jacobite Risings were aimed at returning catholic Stuart's to the throne of Great Britain, people with a more realistic claim to the throne. They continued until the last Jacobite Rebellion led by Charles Edward Stuart (the Young Pretender), was soundly defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, ending any hope of a Stuart restoration.


American War of Independence 1775 – 1783
The American Revolutionary War, also known as the American War of Independence, was a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain, and thirteen British colonies on the North American continent. The main causes of the war were the colonies began objecting to British rule and the taxes they had to pay to Britain, also, Britain was against the colonies moving west into native Indian territories. George Washington was appointed commander-in-chief of the American forces that had the backing of about 40 - 45% of the colonists, about 15 - 20% remained loyal to the British Crown. An estimated 13,000 native Americans fought on the side of Britain. After the American forces began showing signs they could be successful, France signed the Treaty of Alliance with the United States February 6th 1778, and Spain entered the war as an ally of France in June 1779. The war came to an end when the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3rd 1783. The last British troops left New York City November 25th 1783. This began a series of wars with the native Indians as the colonies began spreading out west.


Napoleonic Wars 1803 - 1815
By 1789, the French people had turned against King Louis XV1 with the revolutionaries gaining control of France by 1792. Louis XV1 was brought to trial in December of that year then executed by guillotine January 21st 1793. A reign of terror followed as the new ruling faction began executing all potential enemies within their midst. During the last six weeks of that period, up to July 1794, nearly fourteen hundred people were executed by guillotine in Paris alone. France was then ruled by different government factions until Napoleon became ruler of France in 1799, and later, Emperor in May 1804. As Napoleon then had the power he craved, he set about his ambition of ruling all of Europe and defeating the countries that were plotting his demise. Napoleon conquered most of Europe and large areas of Russia before suffering defeats by the combined armies of many European countries. His final defeat was by the British commander Duke of Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was then forced into exile spending the rest of his life on the island of St Helena in the South Atlantic. His death May 5th 1821 saw him buried on the island. His remains were moved from St Helena in 1840 so they could be reburied at the French army museum at Invalides in Paris. Napoleon is often credited with being the greatest ever military commander..


Mexican War of Independence 1810 - 1821
Mexican War of Independence (1810 - 1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started September 16th 1810. August 24th 1821, representatives of the Spanish crown signed the Treaty of Córdoba, which recognized Mexican independence, ending three centuries of Spanish colonial rule.


Texas Revolution 1835 - 1836
The Texas Revolution, or Texas War of Independence, was fought from October 2nd 1835 - April 21st 1836 between Mexico and the Texas portion of the Mexican state. The war ended at the Battle of San Jacinto (about 20 miles (32 km) east of modern day downtown Houston) where General Sam Houston led the Texan Army to victory over a portion of the Mexican Army under the Mexican President, Santa Anna, who was captured shortly after the battle. The conclusion of the war resulted in the creation of the Republic of Texas. The most notable battle of the Texas Revolution was at The Alamo in 1836, a mission and fortress compound, defended by about 183 - 189 Texans under the command of William Barret Travis and Jim Bowie. The Battle of the Alamo ended March 6th after a 13 day siege in which all Texan combatants were killed.


Anglo - Afghan Wars 1839 - 1921
Afghanistan was of strategic importance for Britain & Russia as the British Empire in the India region wanted control of Afghanistan to their north, and the Russian Empire wanted control of Afghanistan to their south. There were three wars between 1839 and 1921 where the Afghans themselves tried to remove British and Russians influence from their land. The most famous battle in the wars was at the Khyber Pass, a mountain pass in western Asia, connecting Afghanistan and Pakistan. In January 1842, about 16,000 British and Indian troops were killed in a battle at the the pass. The wars came to an end with the Treaty of Rawalpindi (signed August 8th 1919 and amended November 22nd 1921). The treaty stated the United Kingdom would recognize Afghanistan's independence and agree that the British - Indian empire would never extend past the Khyber Pass.


Mexican – American War 1846 - 1848
The Mexican–American War began over Mexico refusing to recognize the military victory by Texas in 1836, considering Texas a rebel province, and refusing to sell America land in the area of modern day California. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed February 2nd 1848, ended the war, giving the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, and ceded to the United States the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming. In return, Mexico received U.S. $15,000,000, less than half the amount the U.S. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities.


Crimean War 1853 - 1856
The Crimean War was fought between the Russian Empire on one side and an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Most of the conflict took place on the Crimean Peninsula, with additional actions occurring in western Turkey, and the Baltic Sea region. Peace negotiations began in 1856 through the Congress of Paris with Russia agreeing not to establish any naval or military arsenal on the Black Sea coast. Also, all the Powers involved were to respect the independence and territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire.

The Crimean War is best remembered for Florence Nightingale, who became known as "The Lady with the Lamp", a pioneering nurse and writer. Also the Charge of the Light Brigade, a disastrous cavalry charge led by the British Lord Cardigan during the Battle of Balaclava, October 25th 1854. Lord Cardigan received unclear instructs to charge guns. Instead of charging a few British guns that had been captured by the Russians, he led over 600 of the Light Brigade straight into the full force of the Russian army and cannon. Casualties mounted to 156 men killed, 122 wounded and 335 horses destroyed.


American Civil War 1861 - 1865
In the presidential election of 1860, the Republican Party, led by Abraham Lincoln, had campaigned against the expansion of slavery beyond the states in which it already existed. The Republican victory in that election resulted in seven Southern states withdrawing from the Union, even before Lincoln took office March 4th 1861. Hostilities began April 12th 1861, when breakaway Confederate forces attacked a U.S. Union military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina. The war led to about 1,030,000 casualties (3% of the population), including about 620,000 soldier deaths, two-thirds by disease. The war ended after the Confederate General Lee surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia April 9th 1865. General Johnston surrendered his troops to Sherman April 26th 1865, in Durham, North Carolina. On June 23rd 1865, at Fort Towson in the Choctaw Nations' area of the Oklahoma Territory, General Stand Watie signed a cease-fire agreement with Union representatives, becoming the last Confederate general in the field to stand down. Victory for the Union saw the seven breakaway states return to the Union and slavery abolished.


Franco-Mexican War 1861 - 1867,
The French intervention in Mexico was an invasion of Mexico by the army of the Second French Empire, supported in the beginning by the British and Spanish. It followed Mexican President Benito Juárez suspening interest payments to foreign countries July 17th 1861. The British, Spanish and French fleets arrived at the Mexican port of Veracruz between January 6th and January 8th 1862. The city of Campeche surrendered to the French fleet February 27th, and a French army arrived March 5th. When the Spanish and British realized the French ambition to conquer Mexico, they withdrew their forces April 9th. The French took full control of Mexico in 1864, proclaiming the Austrian, Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico. Many foreign governments refused to recognize his government, especially the United States; this ensured the success of Republican forces led by Benito Juárez. Maximilian I was executed after his capture by Republicans, in Santiago de Querétaro in 1867. The execution of Maximilian I, and backing from the U.S., led to the Republic of Mexico being restored .


Anglo - Zulu War 1879
The British, since 1824, had established an important trading post in South Africa at Port Natal (now Durban) maintaining good relations with their indigenous neighbours. Until 1868, Natal had been developing slowly, but when gold and diamonds were discovered at Kimberley, this growth quickened. As British expansion in the area was hampered by the Zulu territory, half-hearted discussions took place between the British and the Zulu chiefs to agree a Confederation of joint control. As no agreement was reached, the first invasions of Zululand took place between January and April 1879. The battle that finally broke the military power of the Zulu nation took place at their capital of Ulundi, July 4th 1879. There were many historic battles throughout the war with up to 5,000 British troops facing up to 25,000 Zulu warriors at a time. Most Zulu successes, armed mainly with spears, were picking off small British convoys, although they were successful in a few large battles. The British won most of the major battles such as the most famous, Rorke's Drift. The Martini-Henry single-shot lever action rifle was the weapon British troops used in the campaign. Today, Zululand is part of the Republic of South Africa.


Third Anglo-Burmese War 1885 - 1887
There were three periods of conflict between Britain and Burma from 1823 - 1887. The wars began after Burma tried to expand their land into the British Empire in India. Britain won a series of wars in the early years, taking control of regions of Burma. The Third War led to British rule in 1886, making Burma a province of India, with the capital at Rangoon. The end of WWII led to Burma gaining independence from Britain January 4th 1948. The British were so unpopular in Burma at that time, the Burmese people opted not to join the British Commonwealth, unlike India or Pakistan.

The most memorable history of Burma was during WWII when in 1943, a Japanese invasion, with superior heavy weapons, took thousands of Allied Prisoners of War. These prisoners and Asian labourers, were forced to work on the 415 km long Burma - Thailand railway, including the bridge on the River Kwai. Their are 2 war cemeteries in Burma containing the remains of over 8,000 Australian, Dutch and British war prisoners who lost their lives during the construction of the Death Railway.


Russo - Japanese War 1904 - 1905
The Russo – Japanese War was a conflict between the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over control of Manchuria (region between Russia and China) and Korea. Japan needed minerals from the countries and Russia was in need of warm water ports on the Pacific Ocean. After Japan broke off negotiations and attacked the Russian fleet based at Port Arthur (a Port in China leased to Russia), the world’s military experts were amazed when the mighty Russian Eastern Fleet had either been sunk or blockaded in port. The Russian Government responded to that attack by sending their main fleet of warships from the Baltic port of Liepaja, to engage the Japanese. They had to travel around the African coast as the deep draught of their battleships prevented them from transiting the Suez Canal. The Russian fleet was then instructed to call at the port of Vladivostock in Siberia, and from there, pursue the Japanese Navy and cargo vessels. After covering 18,000 miles, the Russian’s were approaching the Tsushima Strait, May 27th 1905, when they engaged the entire Japanese fleet. The following battle ended with the Russian fleet destroyed to an extent that only a few ships managed to flee to safety. After that defeat, Russia was forced to sign a peace treaty with Japan, this signaling Japan's status as a world power. Most of Japans warships at that time were British built and their officers British trained.


World War I 1914 - 1918
World War One war was sparked off by the assassination of the heir to the Austro/Hungarian throne ‘Archduke Franz Ferdinand’ in Sarajevo June 28th 1914. It was believed the Serbian Nationalist Secret Society the ‘Black Hand’ had planned the assassination. With Serbia refusing to hand over the conspirators, Austro/Hungary declared war on Serbia July 28th 1914. As Russia had signed a treaty with Serbia, they began mobilizing their troops to defend Serbia. With Germany having signed a treaty with Austro/Hungary, they declared war on Russia August 1st 1914. France declared war on Germany and Austro/Hungary August 3rd 1914 as they too had signed a treaty with Russia. With Britain and France being Allies, Britain declared war on Germany August 4th 1914. Japan declared war on Germany August 23rd 1914 as they had signed a treaty with Britain in 1902. At that time, America declared a policy of absolute neutrality. Italy had signed a treaty with Germany stating they would help defend Germany in the event of war. With Germany being the aggressor, Italy declared a policy of neutrality. Italy maintained that stance until they joined the war on the side of the Allies in 1916. America joined the war against Germany in April 1917 as their policy of unrestricted submarine warfare was seriously threatening United States commercial shipping.

As the First World War came to end November 11th 1918, after an armistice with Germany was signed, over 9,000,000 people had lost their lives. The countries to suffer the greatest losses were Germany and their Allies over 3,500,000, Russia 1,700,000, France 1,300,000, the British Empire 1,000,000 and the USA 116,000..


Irish Wars of Independence 1916 - 1922
Until the middle of the 17th Century, Dublin remained a small, walled medieval town. The victor of the English Civil War (Oliver Cromwell) took control of Dublin in 1649. The town of only 9000 residents at that time, began to grow dramatically with Protestant refugees from European countries settling in the area. Over the following century, Dublin grew dramatically, becoming the second city of the British Empire. The Act of Union between England and Ireland in 1800 abolished the Irish Parliament, this drastically reducing Dublin's status. With the wealth of the city declining over the following century, Irish Republicans led by James Connolly and Patrick Pearse began plotting to gain control of Ireland in 1916. The bloody battle that broke out between Republicans and British troops Easter 1916 ended with James Connolly, Patrick Pearse and their top men imprisoned. Although the Republicans had little support of Dubliners at that time, the execution of Connolly, Pearse and 12 of their men by firing squad, May 1916, led to the Republican movement gaining a massif increase in support, in Ireland and America. This extra support and finance led to the War of Independence with Ireland achieving independence in 1922.


Chinese Civil War 1927 - 1949
The Chinese Civil War, was a civil war in China between the Chinese Nationalist Party and the Russian supported Chinese Communist Party. April 21st 1949, Communist forces crossed the Yangtze River, capturing Nanjing, capital of the Nationalist Party's Republic of China. No legal document to officially end the Chinese Civil War has ever been signed. Legally speaking, with both contending governments PRC and ROC still existing, the Chinese Civil War has not been resolved. However, the Communists have ruled ever since creating a mutual mistrust with capitalist countries in the west. China dramaticaly began opening up for trade with the west in the first years of the 21st Century. With China and its peoples new found wealth, through exports to democratic ruled countries in the west, it should only be a matter of time until China is forced into true democracy.


World War II 1939 - 1945
The Spanish Civil War came to an end March 28th 1939 with the Spanish dictator Franco taking control of the Country, with the help of the German military. German forces were then ready to begin their attacks on countries Hitler had chosen for conquest, mostly countries that had been awarded German land at the end of World War One, and, as Hitler stated, Germany should defeat France in war to avenge the German humiliation of World War One.

Before Hitler ordered his forces into Poland, he signed a pact of non-aggression with the Soviet Union August 23rd 1939. This led to Hitler thinking his invasion of Poland September 1st 1939 would have to be accepted by other countries. Hitler had underestimated the resolve of governments throughout the world at that time as Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand, responded to the invasion of Poland by declaring war on Germany September 3rd 1939. Two days later, the United States declared a state of neutrality. Canada spent a week debating the situation before showing their support for Britain by declaring war on Germany September 10th 1939. With the Soviets having invaded Poland by that time, Warsaw was forced to surrender to the Germans and Soviets September 27th 1939. Within a month of taking control of Poland, the Nazis began carrying out euthanasia on Germanys sick and disabled. The Soviets were thrown out of the League of Nations after they began invading Finland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. With Hitler seeing those invasions as encroaching on German lands, he launched operation Barbarossa (the invasion of the Soviet Union June 22nd 1941).

The United States had imposed severe sanctions on Japan as they had been taking control of Islands and mineral rich areas of other countries throughout the Far East in the late 1930s. These sanctions would have crippled Japan, as they were totally dependant on the import of oil to sustain their countries needs. Japan had a choice of either giving up all their conquests in the Far East, or go to war with the United States. Germany, Italy and Japan formed an alliance September 27th 1940. This led to Italy carrying out attacks on British forces throughout the Mediterranean and North Africa while the Japanese planned the attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7th 1941. After the United States declared war on Japan, the day after the attacks on Pearl Harbor, Germany showed their support for Japan by declaring war on the United States December 11th 1941.

German forces surrendered in Italy April 29th 1945, in Western Europe, May 7th, and on the Eastern Front, May 8th, Japan surrendered August 15th 1945. The greatest losses during World War Two were, the Soviet Union over 21,000,000, Germany 7,000,000, Poland 6,850,000, Japan 1,800,000, Yugoslavia 1,700,000, Romania 985,000, France 810,000, Hungary 750,000, Austria 525,000, Italy 410,000, Czechoslovakia 400,000, Great Britain 388,000 and the USA 295,000..


Vietnamese War of Independence 1946 - 1954
French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina (who together form modern Vietnam) the Kingdom of Cambodia; Laos was added after the Franco-Siamese War of 1893. The years following the Second World War saw the countries of French Indo China begin a series of guerrilla wars to avoid being taken back under French rule. France’s defeat in the Indo China war in 1954 led to the Geneva Conference awarding power to the nationalist governments of Cambodia, Laos, North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The North Vietnam government adopted communism with strong links to Russia, this creating tensions in the region as communism looked like it could engulf that whole area.


First Indo-Pakistani War 1947 - 1948
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from 1947 to 1948. It was the first of four wars fought between the two newly formed nations after gaining independence from Britain, August 15th 1947. The modern state of Pakistan was established at that time, carved out of the two Muslim-majority wings in the eastern and northwestern regions of British India. Tension between the two countries have existed ever since. Since early in the 21st Century, India and Pakistan have joined China as the fastest evolving economic nations. Western nations are hoping this should lead to more stability in the region as, the richer and more educated people are, the less likely they are to support, or volunteer for military action. The down side for western nations is, much of the wealth in the west will be lost to these developing nations. India and Pakistan became nuclear powers after developed nuclear weapons in the 1990s.


Palestinian Civil War 1947 - 1948
Evidence of a Jewish presence in Israel dates back 3,400 years. When the British conquered the area in 1917, they named it "Palestine" and defined the boundaries. May 14th 1948, the last British forces left Haifa due to the Palestine Civil War in which the Jewish and Arab communities of Palestine clashed. This allowed the Jewish Agency, led by David Ben-Gurion, to declare the creation of the State of Israel, in accordance with the 1947 UN Partition Plan. From that time on, Israel has had disputes with its Arab neighbours over borders, river water and use of the Suez Canal. The greatest impact these wars had on the world were when the Suez Canl was blocked with damaged ships twice, from 1956 - 1957 and 1967 - 1974. These times caused instability throughout the world with fuel prices increasing dramatically. Shipyards had to begin building Super Tankers from that time to transport oil from the Middle East to the west around the Cape of Good Hope at affordable costs.


Korean War 1950 - 1953
The Korean War between North Korea and South Korea began June 25th 1950 and lasted until an armistice was signed July 27th 1953. As WW II came to a close, in September 1945, the Soviets liberated the northern part of Korea above the 38th parallel from the Japanese occupiers and the USA liberated the southern part from the Japanese occupiers. This led to the splitting of Korea with a northern government adopting communism and a southern government capitalism. In an attempt to unify north & south Korea, backed by Stalin and using Soviet weapons, the communist north led by Kim Il-sung invaded the south Sunday, June 25th 1950. The first significant foreign military intervention by U.S. & United Nations forces took place July 5th 1950. Hostilities further escalated when China entered the war on the side of North Korea. Chinese troops engaged U.S. troops for the first time November 1st 1950. An armistice was signed July 27th 1953 after the death of about 400,000 South Koreans and 500,000 North Koreans. Foreign servicemen to die in combat were about , 33,000 U.S., 2,100 UN, and 110,000 Chinese.


Vietnam War 1959 - 1975
French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina (who together form modern Vietnam) and the Kingdom of Cambodia; Laos was added after the Franco-Siamese War of 1893. The years following the Second World War saw the countries of French Indo China begin a series of guerrilla wars to avoid being taken back under French rule. France’s defeat in the Indo China war in 1954 led to the Geneva Conference awarding power to the nationalist governments of Cambodia, Laos, North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, was fought between the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), supported by its communist allies, and the U.S. supported Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). Due to the lack of support for the war in America, January 15 1973, President Nixon of the U.S. announced the suspension of offensive action against North Vietnam. The Paris Peace Accords on "Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam" were signed on January 27th 1973, officially ending direct U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. The war ended with approximately 58,000 U.S. soldiers killed, 3 - 4 million Vietnamese from both sides, and 1.5 to 2 million Laotians and Cambodians. Although the U.S. continued to arm and train the South so they could defend themselves, this was not enough to prevent the North from attacking the south again in 1974. The North Vietnamese captured Saigon in April 1975, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year.


Soviet war in Afghanistan 1979 - 1989
Afghanistan had been stable for 40 years under the rule of King Mohammad Zahir Shah from Nov 8th 1933 - July 17th 1973. The king was overthrown by former PM Daud in 1973, creating instability in the region once again. The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving Soviet forces supporting the governing Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), against the Mujahideen resistance fighting to overthrow the Soviet backed government. The Mujahideen found support from a variety of sources including the United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim nations. The Mujahideen, with modern western weapons, and fighters from the Muslim world, made it impossible for the Soviets to remain in Afghanistan. The Soviet withdrawal in 1989 was seen as similar to the the U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam. About 15,000 Soviet servicemen had lost their lives resulting in Soviet citizens demanding an end to the war. At that time, no one had won the war, or lost. The Soviet Union collapsed in May 1992 when 12 of 15 republics declared their independence from the Russian Empire. The civil war continued in Afghanistan until Kabul fell to the Mujahideen in April 1992. From that time, war between the Mujahideen factions escalated with each faction hoping to take full control. In 1996, the Taliban, a faction of Mujahideen soldiers who identified themselves as religious students, took control of Afghanistan. The Taliban ruled until the U.S. backed invasion October 7th 2001. That invasion received support from most western countries as as the Taliban refused to hand over Osama bin Laden for his alleged involvement in the September 11 attacks on New York.


Iranian Revolution 1978 - 1979
The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution), was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi led Iran from September 16th 1941, until he was forced to flee Iran during the Iranian Revolution. During the Shah's reign, Iran celebrated 2,500 years of continuous monarchy since the founding of the Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great. The revolution seemed to be set off by a series of events such as the growth of the Islamic revival that opposed Westernization, shortages of goods, strikes and a growing feeling throughout Iran that the Royals were corrupt, only interested in their own wealth. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini served as the Supreme Leader of Iran from 1979 until his death June 3rd 1989. On October 22nd 1979, the Shah was admitted into the United States for medical treatment for lymphoma. There was an immediate outcry in Iran and on November 4th 1979, a group of students, all of whom were ardent followers of Khomeini, seized the United States embassy in Tehran, taking 63 Americans hostage, this escalating tensions between Iran and western nations. Khomeini also began calling for an Islamic revolution across the Muslim world, including Iran's Arab neighbor Iraq. The leader of Iraq, President Saddam Hussein, responded by setting his sights on defeating Iran in war to secure his own position, and in the process, take control of Iranian oil fields. Western governments backed Saddam Hussein at that time, suplying Iraq with weapons. Western governments, although never really trusting Hussein, took that opportunity to try and destroy an Iranian ideology that threatened world peace.


Iran – Iraq War 1980 - 1988
Since records began, wars have been fought throughout the the Middle East for control of the land. After World War One, the British inherited the area with the task of defining borders to end the unrest. The borders of modern day Iraq were defined at that time. This led to disputes between Iraq and Iran over borders, mainly oil rich regions in Iran that Iraq believed should have been theirs. The Iranian Revolution of 1979 threatened the rule of President Saddam Hussein of Iraq, as he was a Sunni muslim leading a country with a majority of Shia muslims. Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran had been calling for the Shia of Iraq to rise up and take control, similar to how Iran had been taken over in the 1979 revolution. With the backing of many western nations, Iraq launching a full-scale invasion of Iran September 22nd 1980. The war came to and end with the August 20th 1988 cease-fire agreement. Iraq casualties are thought to have been between 160,000 and 240,000, Iran casualties thought to be at least 300,000. Although the war ended with no clear winner, the influence of Iran in the Middle East seemed to be greatly reduced.


Gulf War 1990 - 1991
The Gulf War (August 2nd 1990 – February 28th 1991) began after Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing Iraq's oil through slant drilling. Another reason was, Kuwait had been influential in keeping the price of oil low at that time. Iraq believed they had an agreement with western countries that backed them in the war against Iran, that oil prices would be higher to allow Iraq to recover financially from their years of war. Representatives from Iraq also seemed to get the idea from some U.S. diplomats, who had been backing Iraq in the war with Iran, that an invasion of Kuwait would be accepted by the U.S. This however proved to be a misinterpreted of reality as, a coalition force from 34 nations authorized by the United Nations (UN) but led primarily by the United States and the United Kingdom, responded to the invasion of Kuwait by setting out to return Kuwait to the control of the Emir of Kuwait. The overwhelming coalition forces easily forced Iraqi forces out of Kuwait leading to U.S. President Bush declaring a cease-fire February 27th 1991. U.S. forces suffered 148 battle-related deaths and the UK suffered 47 deaths. Iraq suffered between 20,000 and 35,000 fatalities.


Yugoslav Wars 1991 - 2001
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of conflicts that comprised two sets of successive wars affecting all of the six former Yugoslav republics. They were mainly ethnic conflicts between Serbs on one side and Croats, Bosnians or Albanians on the other. The wars hit their peak between 1996 – 1999 during the Kosovo War, between mainly Christian Serbian forces and the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), mainly a Muslim Albanian guerrilla group seeking secession from the former Yugoslavia. Serbian forces began ethnic cleansing, executing thousands of Muslim men of fighting age. Most people were shocked when scenes like Hitler's WWII were shown to be taking place in a European country during the 1990s. The Serbian forces received backing from their citizens by spreading hate and disgust over the foreign fighters with the KLA beheading Serb soldiers and citizens. It is unclear just how many executions by beheading took place, the KLA stated Serb forces made up a lot of the allegations to obtain support for their actions. Although NATO moved into the region in 1999, mainly taking military action against Serb forces, it took a further two years to put an end to the fighting. NATO forces are expected to remain in the region as peace keepers for many years. Leaders from all sides are continually being hunted down and tried for War Crimes.


War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
The War in Afghanistan began October 7th 2001 after the United States and United Kingdom responded to the September 11th 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre in New York, and Pentagon building in Washington. There were 2,974 deaths by the attacks, mainly civilians, after muslim extremists flew 3 aircraft into the buildings. This began the ongoing War on Terror. The stated purpose of the invasion of Afghanistan was to capture Osama bin Laden, destroy al-Qaeda, and remove the Taliban regime which were providing support and training facilities for al-Qaeda and other terror groups. Within 3 months, the Taliban had been removed from power, although they have continued to harass Afghan and foreign troops in an attempt to regain power and keep control of the lucrative drug business that supplies most of the heroin to Europe.

The attacks on U.S. buildings and citizens were thought to have been orchestrated by the Saudi born Osama bin Laden. Osama bin Laden was the son of a wealthy Saudi with a vast construction business. He provided finances, hardware and fought with the Mujahideen in Afghanistan during the 1980s in the successful quest to remove the Soviet backed government from power in Afghanistan, and Soviet forces from the region. At that time, foreign, mainly muslim fighters, received military hardware from the U.S. and other western countries for the war. The never ending supply of weapons, especially surface to air missiles, made it impossible for the Soviets to remain in the area due to mounting casualties. The U.S. and other western countries again provided Muslim fighters with weapons, and even fought alongside them in the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s.

The Gulf War of 1990 - 1991 saw U.S. and other western forces based in Saudi Arabia to protect that country and liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation. Osama bin Laden had tried to persued the Saudi leaders, that if Iraq invaded Saudi Arabia, he and the Mujahideen fighters from around the Muslim world would fight a war similar to that in Afghanistan against the Soviets. The Saudi refusal to take him serious and opt for the guaranteed protection of the U.S., led to Osama bin Laden returning to Afghanistan where he began orchestrating the war of terror on the west, countries that had suported their cause during 3 major conflicts. Foreign fighters in Afghanistan thought they could defeat the U.S. in Afghanistan, similar to the war against the Soviets. They failed to realize though, they no longer had a super power supplying them with weapons.

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